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High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for studying genomic patterns of diversity, inferring ancestral relationships between individuals in populations and studying marker-trait associations in mapping experiments. We developed a genotyping array including about 90,000 gene-associated SNPs and used it to(More)
This article reviews current knowledge of starch metabolism in higher plants, and focuses on the control and regulation of the biosynthetic and degradative pathways. The major elements comprising the synthetic and degradative pathways in plastids are discussed, and show that, despite present knowledge of the core reactions within each pathway, understanding(More)
Protein phosphorylation in amyloplasts and chloroplasts of Triticum aestivum (wheat) was investigated after the incubation of intact plastids with gamma-(32)P-ATP. Among the soluble phosphoproteins detected in plastids, three forms of starch branching enzyme (SBE) were phosphorylated in amyloplasts (SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb), and both forms of SBE in(More)
The dissection of gene-trait associations and its translation into practice through plant breeding is a central aspect of modern plant biology. The identification of genes underlying simply inherited traits has been very successful. However, the identification of gene-trait associations for complex (multi-genic) traits in crop plants with large, often(More)
The roles of starch branching enzyme (SBE, EC 2.4.1.18) IIa and SBE IIb in defining the structure of amylose and amylopectin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm were examined. Barley lines with low expression of SBE IIa or SBE IIb, and with the low expression of both isoforms were generated through RNA-mediated silencing technology. These lines enabled(More)
Wheat starch degradation requires the synergistic action of different amylolytic enzymes. Our spatio-temporal study of wheat α-amylases throughout grain development shows that AMY3 is the most abundant isoform compared with the other known α-amylases. Endosperm-specific over-expression of AMY3 resulted in an increase of total α-amylase activity in harvested(More)
The inactivation of starch branching IIb (SBEIIb) in rice is traditionally associated with elevated apparent amylose content, increased peak gelatinization temperature, and a decreased proportion of short amylopectin branches. To elucidate further the structural and functional role of this enzyme, the phenotypic effects of down-regulating SBEIIb expression(More)
Mutant alleles with the 677C-->T and 1298A-->C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene, and consequent lower methylentetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme activity, have been related to higher plasma homocysteine levels, which are associated with cardiovascular diseases. We assessed the genotype frequencies, degrees of fertility and homocysteine levels, and discuss a(More)
In this study of barley starch synthesis, the interaction between mutations at the sex6 locus and the amo1 locus has been characterized. Four barley genotypes, the wild type, sex6, amo1, and the amo1sex6 double mutant, were generated by backcrossing the sex6 mutation present in Himalaya292 into the amo1 'high amylose Glacier'. The wild type, amo1, and sex6(More)
Himalaya 292 (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) is a novel hull-less barley variety lacking activity of a key enzyme of starch synthesis giving a grain containing less total starch, more amylose and higher total dietary fibre. Animal trials have shown that Himalaya 292 contains more resistant starch and has greater positive impact on biomarkers of(More)