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The present study examined the heritability of the P3 waveform and the N1, P2, and N2 components by assessing the visual event-related potential (ERP) of 30 monozygotic (MZ) and 34 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Electroencephalogram activity was recorded from Pz, P3, and P4 scalp sites while individuals performed a reaction time task involving two conditions(More)
OBJECTIVE This study used a model-fitting strategy to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to the core behavioral dimensions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 576 twin boys, aged 11 and 12 years. METHOD Teacher ratings and maternal structured interview reports composed of behavioral items including DSM-III and(More)
BACKGROUND The children of parents who abuse alcohol typically show reduced amplitude of the P3 event-related potential wave. We determined if this effect was present in a population-based sample of older adolescent boys, whether it was associated with paternal antisocial personality and drug use, and whether it appeared in youth with childhood(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study examined probandwise concordance rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community sample of 194 monozygotic and 94 dizygotic male twins, ages 11-12 years. METHOD DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses of ADHD were based on rating scale reports from the twins' teachers and structured interview reports obtained(More)
Intrauterine hormones and position with respect to male and female littermates influence sexually dimorphic adult behavior in litter-bearing animals. Opposite-sex dizygotic twins offer the opportunity to examine analogous effects on sex-related human behaviors. To illustrate this approach, Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) scores from 422 British twin pairs,(More)
Research on the genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia is briefly and selectively reviewed. The following three salient features of schizophrenia that represent challenges to the design of linkage studies are identified: (1) The analysis of twin and family data has consistently failed to identify a single major gene effect upon schizophrenia risk; (2) the(More)
IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and(More)
Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social(More)
Path analysis of family data has been widely applied to resolve genetic and environmental patterns of familial resemblance. A prevalent statistical approach in path analysis has been, first, to estimate the familial correlations and, second, by assuming these estimates to be independently distributed, define a likelihood function from which maximum(More)
Geneticists and twin researchers have long debated the relative merits of two alternative measures of twin concordance: the pairwise and probandwise concordance rates. The results of this debate are now quite clear, for almost every application the probandwise rate is preferred over the pairwise rate. In a recent review of schizophrenia twin studies,(More)