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Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation alters activation and connectivity in cortical and subcortical reward systems: A tDCS‐fMRI study
TLDR
The results suggest that tDCS can alter activation and connectivity in regions distal to the electrodes, and suggest that whole‐brain connectivity of the right ACC correlated positively with the number of pumps subjects were willing to make on the BART, and that tDCs reduced connectivity between the rightACC and the rest of the brain.
An early stage of conceptual combination: Superimposition of constituent concepts in left anterolateral temporal lobe
TLDR
A categorization task was used to evoke patterns of neural activation for complex concepts as well as their constituents, and a functional region of interest (fROI) within left anterolateral temporal lobe was identified as a possible site of conceptual combination.
A matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control
TLDR
This work proposes a matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of Cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and which can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory.
Predicting judged similarity of natural categories from their neural representations
TLDR
The study examined the relationship between computed pairwise similarity of neural responses to viewed mammals and subjective Pairwise similarity ratings of the same set of mammals, obtained from subjects after the scanning session.
Functional Neuroimaging Can Support Causal Claims about Brain Function
TLDR
Although popular portrayals of functional neuroimaging tend to attribute too much inferential power to the technique, the authors should restrain ourselves from ascribing it too little.
Visual statistical learning is not reliably modulated by selective attention to isolated events
TLDR
Several attempts to replicate and extend earlier work in which observers performed a cover task on one of two interleaved stimulus sets, resulting in the learning of temporal relationships that occurred in the attended stream, but not those present in the unattended stream are reported.
Reproducibility of functional network metrics and network structure: A comparison of task-related BOLD, resting ASL with BOLD contrast, and resting cerebral blood flow
TLDR
Comparisons of graphs derived from resting arterial spin-labeling perfusion fMRI with those derived from BOLD scans collected while the participant was performing a task find a dissociation in the reproducibility of network metrics, with metrics from resting data most reproduced at lower frequencies and metrics from task-related data most reproducible at higher frequencies.
Category-based induction from similarity of neural activation
TLDR
A one-parameter model of category-based induction that generates predictions about arbitrary statements of conditional probability over a predicate and a set of items that is based on the unconditional probabilities and similarities that characterize that predicate and those items.
Similarity and Induction
We advance a theory of inductive reasoning based on similarity, and test it on arguments involving mammal categories. To measure similarity, we quantified the overlap of neural activation in left
From similarity to inference ∗
We advance a theory of inductive reasoning based on similarity, and test it on arguments involving mammal categories. To measure similarity, we quantified the overlap of neural activation in left
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