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Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we treated neonatal mice with clinical doses of two widely used antibiotics--streptomycin and vancomycin--and evaluated resulting shifts in resident flora and(More)
Natural helper (NH) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce T helper-2 (Th2)-cell-type cytokines in the lung- and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Currently, the lineage relationship between NH cells in different tissues and between NH cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt-positive ILCs(More)
Reports showing that W/W(v) mice are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a murine model of multiple sclerosis), have implicated mast cells as an essential component in disease susceptibility, but the role of mast cell trafficking has not been addressed. In this study, we have used both mast cell transplantation and genetic(More)
Asthma is the most prevalent pediatric chronic disease and affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Recent evidence in mice has identified a "critical window" early in life where gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in experimental asthma. However, current research has yet to establish whether these changes precede or are involved(More)
Mast cells are primarily known for their role in defense against pathogens, particularly bacteria; neutralization of venom toxins; and for triggering allergic responses and anaphylaxis. In addition to these direct effector functions, activated mast cells rapidly recruit other innate and adaptive immune cells and can participate in "tuning" the immune(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic inflammation involves the sensitization of naive CD4(+) T cells to allergens, resulting in a TH2-skewed inflammatory response. Although antigen presentation by dendritic cells to T cells in the lymph node is crucial for TH2 cell development, the innate signals that initiate adaptive type 2 inflammation and the role of group 2 innate(More)
Tumor growth and metastasis are determined by the complex interplay of factors, including those intrinsic to tumor cells and extrinsic factors associated with the tumor microenvironment. Our previous work demonstrated key roles for CD34 in the maintenance of vascular integrity and eosinophil and mast cell homing. Since both of these functions affect tumor(More)
CD34 is a cell surface sialomucin expressed by hematopoietic precursors, eosinophils, mast cells, and vascular endothelia and is suggested to play an integral role in mucosal inflammatory responses. Although Cd34(-/-) mice have normal hematopoietic cell subsets in peripheral tissues at steady state, they exhibit a cell recruitment defect when challenged,(More)
There is convincing evidence from recent human and animal studies that suggests the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of allergic asthma, particularly during early infancy. Although identifying the mechanistic link between host-microbe interactions in the gut and lung mucosal tissues(More)
In mouse models of infection with the gastrointestinal parasite Trichuris muris, appropriate dendritic-cell (DC) Ag sampling, migration, and presentation to T cells are necessary to mount a protective Th2-polarized adaptive immune response, which is needed to clear infection. SH2-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP-1) has been shown to be an(More)