Matthew J Cunningham

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The Kiss1 gene encodes a family of neuropeptides called kisspeptins, which activate the receptor G protein-coupled receptor-54 and play a role in the neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion. We examined whether estradiol (E2) regulates KiSS-1 in the forebrain of the female mouse by comparing KiSS-1 mRNA expression among groups of ovary-intact(More)
Kisspeptins are products of the KiSS-1 gene, which bind to a G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54. Mutations or targeted disruptions in the GPR54 gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice, suggesting that kisspeptin signaling may be important for the regulation of gonadotropin secretion. To examine the effects of kisspeptin-54(More)
The KiSS-1 gene codes for a family of neuropeptides called kisspeptins which bind to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. To assess the possible effects of kisspeptins on gonadotropin secretion, we injected kisspeptin-52 into the lateral cerebral ventricles of adult male rats and found that kisspeptin-52 increased the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (p(More)
We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded;(More)
Rapid effects of steroid hormones have been observed in neuronal cells for many years. We show here, that in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH, the membrane impermeable conjugated 17beta-estradiol (E2BSA) activates mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK or MEK) and induces the phosphorylation and activation of both ERK-1 and ERK-2 (mitogen(More)
Energy availability influences reproductive fitness. The activity of the reproductive axis is sensitive to the adequacy of nutrition and the stores of metabolic reserves. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is postulated to reflect the state of nutrition and energy reserves and serve as a metabolic gate to the reproductive system. Genetically obese ob/ob(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP), which was recently isolated from the porcine hypothalamus, shares sequence homology with galanin and binds with high affinity to galanin receptors. To study the distribution and regulation of GALP-expressing cells in the brain, we cloned a 120 base-pair cDNA fragment of rat GALP and produced an antisense riboprobe. In situ(More)
Leptin acts as a metabolic activator of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis in several rodent species, but whether leptin plays a similar role in primates is unknown. To explore this question, we examined the effects of leptin on gonadotropin and testosterone secretion in male rhesus monkeys that were fasted for 2 days. Mean plasma levels of LH and FSH, LH(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in the control of feeding, metabolism, and reproduction. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of central infusions of GALP on GnRH and LH secretion and to identify physiological factors that influence the expression of GALP mRNA in the brain of a primate(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a newly discovered molecule whose expression in the brain is confined to the arcuate nucleus and median eminence. In the rat, cellular levels of GALP mRNA are reduced by fasting and reversed by peripheral administration of leptin. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to clone and map the distribution of GALP mRNA in the(More)