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BACKGROUND Little is known of the biological significance and evolutionary maintenance of integrated non-retroviral RNA virus genes in eukaryotic host genomes. Here, we isolated novel filovirus-like genes from bat genomes and tested for evolutionary maintenance. We also estimated the age of filovirus VP35-like gene integrations and tested the phylogenetic(More)
The ecological model, Daphnia pulex (Cladocera: Daphniidae), is broadly distributed in Holarctic freshwater habitats and has been the subject of multidisciplinary study for over half a century, but never has a natural RNA virus infection been reported in daphnids. Here we report on a group of paleoviruses related to RNA dependent RNA polymerase in the(More)
Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis) with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus(More)
An understanding of the timescale of evolution is critical for comparative virology but remains elusive for many RNA viruses. Age estimates based on mutation rates can severely underestimate divergences for ancient viral genes that are evolving under strong purifying selection. Paleoviral dating, however, can provide minimum age estimates for ancient(More)
UNLABELLED Bunyaviridae is a large family of RNA viruses chiefly comprised of vertebrate and plant pathogens. We discovered novel bunyavirids that are approximately equally divergent from each of the five known genera. We characterized novel genome sequences for two bunyavirids, namely, Kigluaik phantom virus (KIGV), from tundra-native phantom midges(More)
The recent and surprising discovery of widespread NIRVs (non-retroviral integrated RNA viruses) has highlighted the importance of genomic interactions between non-retroviral RNA viruses and their eukaryotic hosts. Among the viruses with integrated representatives are the rhabdoviruses, a family of negative sense single-stranded RNA viruses. We identify(More)
The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma diseases in grapevine. In the current study, the bacterial community compositions of symbionts of this insect were examined. Two dominant bacterial lineages were identified by mass sequencing: the obligate symbiont Candidatus Sulcia, and a facultative symbiont(More)
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