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Rationale. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely used phenethylamine. Reports have described the effects of MDMA in a controlled laboratory setting, but the full range of effects of MDMA in humans is still not completely characterized. Objectives. To describe the physiological, subjective, and hormonal changes after single doses of MDMA in a(More)
BACKGROUND The psychoactive stimulant 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also known as "ecstasy," is widely used in nonmedical settings. Little is known about its cardiovascular effects. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the acute cardiovascular effects of MDMA by using transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. DESIGN Four-session,(More)
Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including(More)
Despite longstanding reports of prolonged or reoccurring perceptual changes in a subset of hallucinogen users, very little is known about Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder and related visual abnormalities in hallucinogen users. We used an online questionnaire to document the symptoms and relationship to drug use of unusual visual phenomena in(More)
OBJECTIVE Sublingual buprenorphine appears useful in the treatment of opiate dependence. A combination sublingual dose of buprenorphine and naloxone could have less potential for parenteral use by opiate-dependent individuals. To estimate the abuse potential of a combination formulation, we assessed the parenteral effects of a buprenorphine and naloxone(More)
Salvinorin A (SA) is a highly selective kappa opioid receptor agonist and the putative psychoactive compound in Salvia divinorum (SD), an increasingly abused hallucinogenic plant. The objectives of this study were to characterize the physiological and subjective effects of SA versus placebo and measure drug and metabolite levels. Sublingual SA doses up to 4(More)
BACKGROUND There is growing use of Salvia divinorum (SD), a psychoactive plant that produces hallucinogen-like effects through a kappa opioid receptor (KOR) mechanism. Little is known about KOR agonist effects in humans and about users of SD. OBJECTIVES To characterize the reasons, methods, and reported consequences of SD use. METHODS Individuals(More)