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Two samples of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) predominate in health effects research: an automobile-derived DEP (A-DEP) sample and the National Institute of Standards Technology standard reference material (SRM 2975) generated from a forklift engine. A-DEPs have been tested extensively for their effects on pulmonary inflammation and exacerbation of(More)
A number of epidemiological studies have associated increased cardiopulmonary mortality and hospital admissions with episodes of high particulate air pollution. Inhaled particles, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter <10 microm (PM10) reach the lower respiratory tract where they are phagocytized by alveolar macrophages (AM). Depending on particle(More)
Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse factors, including increased awareness of the disease, altered lifestyle and(More)
Many pulmonary toxicity studies of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have used an automobile-generated sample (A-DEPs) whose mutagenicity has not been reported. In contrast, many mutagenicity studies of DEPs have used a forklift-generated sample (SRM 2975) that has been evaluated in only a few pulmonary toxicity studies. Therefore, we evaluated the(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between elevated levels of particulate matter air pollution and increased morbidity and hospital visits in asthmatics. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a primary combustion particle containing sulfate and metals such as vanadium, nickel, and iron. In this study the effect of ROFA on sensitization to house dust(More)
Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pregnant mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or diesel exhaust (DE) on(More)
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollutants and exacerbation of asthma symptoms. We have shown in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of house dust mite (HDM) allergy that preexposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) particles enhanced the sensitization phase such that the secondary(More)
The mechanisms for increased cardiopulmonary disease in individuals exposed to particulate air pollution are associated with fine and ultrafine particles that have a high oxidative potential. Particulate matter (PM) from Research Triangle Park (NC) was collected and separated into 3 different size fractions: coarse (CO; >3.5 microm), fine (FI; 1.7-3.5(More)
Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) during pregnancy worsened postnatal ozone-induced AHR, timed pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DE (0.5 or(More)
A new procedure for isolating and estimating ingested carbonaceous diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) particles by lung epithelial cells and macrophages is described. Cells were incubated with DEP or CB to examine cell-particle interaction and ingestion. After various incubation periods, the cells were separated from free extracellular DEP(More)