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BACKGROUND Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. METHODS We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central),(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine survival and long term cessation of injecting in a cohort of drug users and to assess the influence of opiate substitution treatment on these outcomes. DESIGN Prospective open cohort study. SETTING A single primary care facility in Edinburgh. PARTICIPANTS 794 patients with a history of injecting drug use presenting between 1980(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and incidence among injecting drug users (IDUs) has increased in London and rest of UK. To inform public health action, mathematical modelling is used to explore the possible impact of strategies to decrease syringe sharing. METHODS A mathematical model was developed to simulate HCV transmission amongst IDUs(More)
AIMS To compare the change in illicit opioid users' risk of fatal drug-related poisoning (DRP) associated with opioid agonist pharmacotherapy (OAP) and psychological support, and investigate the modifying effect of patient characteristics, criminal justice system (CJS) referral and treatment completion. DESIGN National data linkage cohort study of the(More)
BACKGROUND Injection site infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) have been associated with serious morbidity and health service costs in North America. This study explores the frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections among IDUs in England. METHODS Unlinked-anonymous survey during 2003/05 recruiting IDUs from community(More)
AIMS To estimate long-term trends in cannabis use and projections of schizophrenia assuming a causal relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia. METHODS Trends in cannabis use were estimated from a national survey, 2003; and incidence of schizophrenia was derived from surveys in three English cities, 1997-99. A difference equation cohort model was(More)
HIV can spread rapidly between people who inject drugs (through injections and sexual transmission), and potentially the virus can pass to the wider community (by sexual transmission). Here, we summarise evidence on the effectiveness of individual-level approaches to prevention of HIV infection; review global and regional coverage of opioid substitution(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reviews have examined the existence of HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for injecting drug users (IDUs) worldwide, but they did not quantify the scale of coverage. We undertook a systematic review to estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs. METHODS We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of opiate substitution treatment at the beginning and end of treatment and according to duration of treatment. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. Setting UK General Practice Research Database. PARTICIPANTS Primary care patients with a diagnosis of substance misuse prescribed methadone or buprenorphine during 1990-2005.(More)