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BACKGROUND Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. METHODS We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central),(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescent risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol use and antisocial behaviour are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of risk behaviour may vary between genders during adolescence. METHODS Analysis of data from a longitudinal birth cohort to assess the prevalence and distribution of multiple risk behaviours by(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine survival and long term cessation of injecting in a cohort of drug users and to assess the influence of opiate substitution treatment on these outcomes. DESIGN Prospective open cohort study. SETTING A single primary care facility in Edinburgh. PARTICIPANTS 794 patients with a history of injecting drug use presenting between 1980(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and incidence among injecting drug users (IDUs) has increased in London and rest of UK. To inform public health action, mathematical modelling is used to explore the possible impact of strategies to decrease syringe sharing. METHODS A mathematical model was developed to simulate HCV transmission amongst IDUs(More)
BACKGROUND Use of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis, by young people is widespread and is associated with several types of psychological and social harm. These relations might not be causal. Causal relations would suggest that recreational drug use is a substantial public health problem. Non-causal relations would suggest that harm-reduction policy based(More)
This chapter synthesises and evaluates the available direct evidence relating to the impact of needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), opioid substitution treatment (OST), drug consumption rooms (DCRs), and peer naloxone distribution (PND) on HIV/hepatitis C (HCV) incidence/prevalence, injecting risk behaviour and overdose-related mortality. To achieve this,(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) in three cities in England and to measure the coverage of key public health indicators. DESIGN Capture-recapture techniques with covariate effects. SETTING Liverpool, Brighton, and 12 London boroughs, 2000/01. PARTICIPANTS IDU collated and matched across five data sources-community(More)
BACKGROUND We report on an exercise to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) and associated harms in a single primary care trust. METHODS Covariate capture-recapture methods to estimate (i) IDU prevalence; respondent driven sampling to measure (ii) prevalence of HCV and HIV and record linkage to measure (iii) mortality risk. RESULTS (i)(More)
Executive summary Liver disease in the UK stands out as the one glaring exception to the vast improvements made during the past 30 years in health and life expectancy for chronic disorders such as stroke, heart disease, and many cancers. Mortality rates have increased 400% since 1970, and in people younger than 65 years have risen by almost fi ve-times.(More)
Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40-48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was(More)