Matthew Hickman

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BACKGROUND Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. METHODS We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central),(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reviews have examined the existence of HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for injecting drug users (IDUs) worldwide, but they did not quantify the scale of coverage. We undertook a systematic review to estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs. METHODS We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide global estimates of the prevalence of injecting drug use (IDU) and HIV prevalence among IDU, in particular to provide estimates for developing and transitional countries. METHODS Collation and review of existing estimates of IDU prevalence and HIV prevalence from published and unpublished documents for the period 1998-2003. The(More)
HIV can spread rapidly between people who inject drugs (through injections and sexual transmission), and potentially the virus can pass to the wider community (by sexual transmission). Here, we summarise evidence on the effectiveness of individual-level approaches to prevention of HIV infection; review global and regional coverage of opioid substitution(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review cohort studies of mortality among people who inject drugs, examine mortality rates and causes of death in this group, and identify participant- and study-level variables associated with a higher risk of death. METHODS Tailored search strings were used to search EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO. The grey literature was(More)
UNLABELLED Injecting drug use is the main risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in most developed countries. HCV antiviral treatment (peginterferon-α + ribavirin) has been shown to be cost-effective for patients with no reinfection risk. We examined the cost-effectiveness of providing antiviral treatment for injecting drug users (IDUs) as compared(More)
BACKGROUND Use of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis, by young people is widespread and is associated with several types of psychological and social harm. These relations might not be causal. Causal relations would suggest that recreational drug use is a substantial public health problem. Non-causal relations would suggest that harm-reduction policy based(More)
OBJECTIVE To present and update available national and subnational estimates of injecting drug users (IDUs) in developing/transitional countries, and provide indicative estimates of gender and age distribution. METHODS Literature review of both grey and published literature including updates from previously reported estimates on estimates of IDU(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment is effective for individual patients but few active injecting drug users are treated. We considered the utility of antiviral treatment for primary prevention of hepatitis C. METHODS A hepatitis C transmission model among injecting drug users was developed, incorporating treatment (62.5% average(More)
Oral fluid testing is an effective alternative to serum antibody testing for surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B infections, and is being extended to hepatitis C infections. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of a modified commercial assay for the detection of antibody to(More)