Matthew H. Samore

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently described illness of humans that has spread widely over the past 6 months. With the use of detailed epidemiologic data from Singapore and epidemic curves from other settings, we estimated the reproductive number for SARS in the absence of interventions and in the presence of control efforts. We estimate(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects the confidentiality of patient data and requires the informed consent of the patient and approval of the Internal Review Board to use data for research purposes, but these requirements can be waived if data is de-identified. For clinical data to be(More)
Adverse drug events cause substantial morbidity and mortality, yet they remain underappreciated and misunderstood. The terminology to describe errors and patient harm associated with medications causes much confusion. This article uses the case study of a patient with multiple adverse drug events to clarify key terms, such as adverse event, adverse drug(More)
BACKGROUND Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related morbidity and mortality rates in patients with advanced HIV infection who are treated with combination antiretroviral drugs have declined, significant metabolic adverse effects associated with these regimens have been increasingly recognized. However, since data from patients studied before and(More)
It is unclear whether increased muscle mass or body fat confer the survival advantage in hemodialysis patients with high body-mass index (BMI). Twenty-four-hour urinary creatinine (UCr) excretion was used as a measure of muscle mass. The outcomes of hemodialysis patients with high BMI and normal or high muscle mass (inferred low body fat) and high BMI and(More)
We investigated the increasing incidence of pediatric empyema during the 1990s at Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City. Of 540 children hospitalized with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP) who were discharged from 1 July 1993 through 1 July 1999, 153 (28.3%) had empyema. The annual population incidence of empyema increased during(More)
The need to stem the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance has prompted multiple, sometimes conflicting, calls for changes in the use of antimicrobial agents. One source of disagreement concerns the major mechanisms by which antibiotics select resistant strains. For infections like tuberculosis, in which resistance can emerge in treated hosts through(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. The risk of emergence of antibiotic resistance may vary with different antibiotic treatments. To compare the risks of emergence of resistance associated with four antipseudomonal agents, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, and piperacillin, we conducted a cohort study, assessing relative(More)
PURPOSE A prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study was conducted to define the frequency of nosocomial Clostridium difficile patient-to-patient transmission in an urban tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over a 6-month period, environmental cultures for C difficile were obtained from patients with new positive stool cytotoxin(More)
BACKGROUND Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk settings for the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). METHODS In a cluster-randomized trial, we evaluated the effect of surveillance for MRSA and VRE colonization and of the expanded use of barrier precautions (intervention) as(More)