Matthew H. England

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1 Roughly 90% of atmospheric ozone is found in the lower stratosphere in the ozone layer. Since about the 1970s, anthropogenic emissions of ozone-depleting gases have led to depletion of ~3–4% of the total overhead ozone averaged over the globe1. The strongest depletion is found over Antarctica during spring, when photochemical processes combine with a(More)
Despite ongoing increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, the Earth’s global average surface air temperature has remained more or less steady since 2001. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to account for this slowdown in surface warming. A key component of the global hiatus that has been identified is cool eastern Pacific sea surface temperature,(More)
Fidelity and projected changes in the climate models, used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), are assessed with regard to the Southern Hemisphere extratropical ocean and sea ice systems. While individual models span different physical parameterizations and resolutions, a major component of intermodel(More)
Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs) Stephen M. Griffies *, Arne Biastoch , Claus Böning , Frank Bryan , Gokhan Danabasoglu , Eric P. Chassignet , Matthew H. England , Rüdiger Gerdes , Helmuth Haak , Robert W. Hallberg , Wilco Hazeleger , Johann Jungclaus , William G. Large , Gurvan Madec , Anna Pirani , Bonita L. Samuels , Markus Scheinert ,(More)
The anthropogenic introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest modern threats to marine biodiversity. Yet exotic species introductions remain difficult to predict and are easily misunderstood because knowledge of natural dispersal patterns, species diversity, and biogeography is often insufficient to distinguish between a broadly dispersed natural(More)
The sensitivity of ventilation timescales and radiocarbon (14C) uptake to subgrid-scale mixing parameterization is studied in a global ocean model. Seven experiments are examined that are identical in every manner except their representation of subgrid-scale mixing of tracers. The cases include (i) two runs with traditional Cartesian mixing (HOR), (ii) a(More)
We analyse Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) variability using a retrospective analysis of the global ocean based on the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) experiment spanning the period 1950-1999. A comparison between the 1983-1995 observed ITF and that simulated suggests a reasonably accurate reconstruction of ocean circulation in the vicinity of the ITF(More)
The coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice response to variations in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is examined in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Coupled Climate Model (version 2). The model shows considerable skill in capturing the predominantly zonally symmetric SAM while regional deviations between model and observation SAM winds go(More)
Interannual rainfall extremes over southwest Western Australia (SWWA) are examined using observations, reanalysis data, and a long-term natural integration of the global coupled climate system. The authors reveal a characteristic dipole pattern of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during extreme rainfall years, remarkably consistent(More)
Interannual rainfall variability over Tasmania is examined using observations and reanalysis data. Tasmanian rainfall is dominated by an east–west gradient of mean rainfall and variability. The Pacific–South American mode (PSA), El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the southern annular mode (SAM) each show clear influences on the interannual variability(More)