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Signaling by laminins and axonal neuregulin has been implicated in regulating axon sorting by myelin-forming Schwann cells. However, the signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been linked to alpha6beta1 integrin and ErbB receptor signaling, and we show that myelination by Schwann cells lacking FAK is severely impaired.(More)
Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during(More)
Cajal bands are cytoplasmic channels flanked by appositions where the abaxonal surface of Schwann cell myelin apposes and adheres to the overlying plasma membrane. These appositions contain a dystroglycan complex that includes periaxin and dystrophin-related protein 2 (Drp2). Loss of periaxin disrupts appositions and Cajal bands in Schwann cells and causes(More)
All but the smallest-diameter axons in the central nervous system are myelinated, but the signals that initiate myelination are unknown. Our prior work has shown that integrin signaling forms part of the cell-cell interactions that ensure only those oligodendrocytes contacting axons survive. Here, therefore, we have asked whether integrins regulate the(More)
In developing peripheral nerves, differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination, together with a growing appreciation of some(More)
Reduced reproduction increases storage and extends lifespan in several animal species. The disposable soma hypothesis suggests this life extension occurs by shifting allocation of ingested nutrients from reproduction to the soma. A great deal of circumstantial evidence supports this hypothesis, but no direct tracking of nutrients has been performed in(More)
Multicore multiprocessors use a Non Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) to improve their scalability. However, NUMA introduces performance penalties due to remote memory accesses. Without efficiently managing data layout and thread mapping to cores, scientific applications may suffer performance loss, even if they are optimized for NUMA. In this paper, we(More)
The Java language first came to public attention in 1995. Within a year, it was being speculated that Java may be a good language for parallel and distributed computing. Its core features, including being objected oriented and platform independence, as well as having built-in network support and threads, has encouraged this view. Today, Java is being used(More)
The power consumption of a large scale system ultimately limits its performance. Consuming less energy while preserving performance leads to better system utilization at scale. The is o-energy-efficiency model was proposed as a metric and methodology for explaining power and performance efficiency on scalable systems. For use in practice, we need to(More)