Matthew F Krummel

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The importance of the B7/CD28/CTLA-4 molecules has been established in studies of antigen-presenting cell-derived B7 and its interaction with the T cell costimulatory molecule CD28. CTLA-4, a T cell surface glycoprotein that is related to CD28, can also interact with B7-1 and B7-2. However, less is known about the function of CTLA-4, which is expressed at(More)
Interactions between B and T cells are essential for most antibody responses, but the dynamics of these interactions are poorly understood. By two-photon microscopy of intact lymph nodes, we show that upon exposure to antigen, B cells migrate with directional preference toward the B-zone-T-zone boundary in a CCR7-dependent manner, through a region that(More)
The in vivo mechanism of regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) function in controlling autoimmunity remains controversial. Here we have used two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to analyze lymph node priming of diabetogenic T cells and to delineate the mechanisms of T(reg) cell control of autoimmunity in vivo. Islet antigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(-) T helper cells(More)
Whereas T helper cells recognize peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes through their T cell receptors (TCRs), CD4 binds to an antigen-independent region of the MHC. Using green fluorescent protein-tagged chimeras and three-dimensional video microscopy, we show that CD4 and TCR-associated CD3zeta cluster in the interface(More)
Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue(More)
The prevention of autoimmunity requires the elimination of self-reactive T cells during their development and maturation. The expression of diverse self-antigens by stromal cells in the thymus is essential to this process and depends, in part, on the activity of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene. Here we report the identification of extrathymic(More)
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory molecule expressed on activated T cells; however, the biological context in which PD-1 controls T cell tolerance remains unclear. Using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we show here that unlike naive or activated islet antigen-specific T cells, tolerized islet antigen-specific T cells moved freely and did not(More)
As T cells move through the lymphatics and tissues, chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, costimulatory molecules and antigen receptors engage their ligands in the microenvironment and contribute to establishing and maintaining cell polarity. Cytoskeletal assemblies, surface proteins and vesicle traffic are essential components of polarity and probably(More)
While interactions between CD28 and members of the B7 family costimulate and enhance T cell responses, recent evidence indicates that the CD28 homologue CTLA-4 plays a downregulatory role. The mechanism by which this occurs is not clear, but it has been suggested that CTLA-4 terminates ongoing responses of activated T cells, perhaps by induction of(More)