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The prevention of autoimmunity requires the elimination of self-reactive T cells during their development and maturation. The expression of diverse self-antigens by stromal cells in the thymus is essential to this process and depends, in part, on the activity of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene. Here we report the identification of extrathymic(More)
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of(More)
Interactions between B and T cells are essential for most antibody responses, but the dynamics of these interactions are poorly understood. By two-photon microscopy of intact lymph nodes, we show that upon exposure to antigen, B cells migrate with directional preference toward the B-zone-T-zone boundary in a CCR7-dependent manner, through a region that(More)
Whereas T helper cells recognize peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes through their T cell receptors (TCRs), CD4 binds to an antigen-independent region of the MHC. Using green fluorescent protein-tagged chimeras and three-dimensional video microscopy, we show that CD4 and TCR-associated CD3zeta cluster in the interface(More)
1. Reflex patterns were analyzed in spontaneously active postganglionic vasoconstrictor neurons supplying skeletal muscle [muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) neurons] and hairy skin [cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC) neurons] of the rat hindlimb. Postganglionic activity was recorded from single units and from filaments containing the axons of several spontaneously(More)
Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue(More)
The systems that refine actomyosin forces during motility remain poorly understood. Septins assemble on the T-cell cortex and are enriched at the mid-zone in filaments. Septin knockdown causes membrane blebbing, excess leading-edge protrusions and lengthening of the trailing-edge uropod. The associated loss of rigidity permits motility, but cells become(More)
The real-time dynamics of the T cell receptor (TCR) reflect antigen detection and T cell signaling, providing valuable insight into the evolving events of the immune response. Despite considerable advances in studying TCR dynamics in simplified systems in vitro, live imaging of subcellular signaling complexes expressed at physiological densities in intact(More)
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory molecule expressed on activated T cells, however, the biological context in which PD-1 controls T cell tolerance remains unclear. Using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we showed that unlike naïve or activated islet antigen-specific T cells, tolerized islet antigen-specific T cells moved freely and did not(More)