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Effective immunity requires the coordinated activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Natural killer (NK) cells are central innate immune effectors, but can also affect the generation of acquired immune responses to viruses and malignancies. How NK cells influence the efficacy of adaptive immunity, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that(More)
In vivo antigenic competition of naive CD4+ TCR transgenic T cells was visualized by tracking cell division. Competition reduced both recruitment into cell division and burst size per recruited precursor cell, minimizing the effect of differences in precursorfrequency while maintaining the dose-response relationship with antigen. Competition was restricted(More)
It is widely accepted that tissue dendritic cells (DC) function as immune sentinels by alerting T cells to foreign antigen after delivering and presenting it in the draining lymph nodes. Over the last two decades, studies in animal models, particularly rodents, have demonstrated that respiratory tract DC are crucial for the adaptive immune response to(More)
Ag delivery via the nasal route typically induces tolerance or fails to polarize CD4+ T cell responses unless an adjuvant is provided. To better understand this process, we assessed the effects of two mucosal adjuvants, Escherichia coli LPS and cholera toxin (CT), on Ag passage and T cell activation in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) of BALB/c mice following(More)
UNLABELLED Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are necessary for repair in chronic liver disease because the remaining hepatocytes cannot replicate. However, LPC numbers also correlate with disease severity and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Thus, the progenitor cell response in diseased liver may be regulated to optimize liver regeneration and minimize the(More)
High levels of expression of wild-type Flt3 characterize many hematopoietic proliferative diseases and neoplasms, providing a potential therapeutic target. Using the c-Cbl RING finger mutant mouse as a model of a myeloproliferative disease (MPD) driven by wild-type Flt3, in the present study, we show that treatment with the Flt3 kinase inhibitor AC220(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to control adaptive immune responses that occur in lymphoid organs at the early stages of immune challenge. The physiological purpose of such regulatory activity remains unclear, because it generally does not confer a survival advantage. We found that NK cells specifically eliminated activated CD4(+) T cells in(More)
Since the plasticity and the potential for re-programming cells has become widely accepted, there has been great interest in cell-based therapies. These are being applied to a range of diseases, not least ocular diseases, where it is assumed that there is a reduced risk of immune rejection although this may be more perceived than real. There are two broad(More)
Airway mucosal dendritic cells (AMDC) and other airway APCs continuously sample inhaled Ags and regulate the nature of any resulting T cell-mediated immune response. Although immunity develops to harmful pathogens, tolerance arises to nonpathogenic Ags in healthy individuals. This homeostasis is thought to be disrupted in allergic respiratory disorders such(More)
BACKGROUND Neovascular, or wet, age-related macular degeneration causes central vision loss and represents a major health problem in elderly people, and is currently treated with frequent intraocular injections of anti-VEGF protein. Gene therapy might enable long-term anti-VEGF therapy from a single treatment. We tested the safety of rAAV.sFLT-1 in(More)