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Many immune system receptors signal through cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs (ITAMs), but how receptor ligation results in ITAM phosphorylation remains unknown. Live-cell imaging studies showed a close interaction of the CD3epsilon cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor (TCR) with the plasma membrane through fluorescence resonance energy transfer(More)
The T cell receptor (TCR) serves a critical function in the immune system and represents one of the most complex receptor structures. A striking feature is the presence of nine highly conserved, potentially charged residues in the transmembrane helices. Previous models have attempted to explain assembly based on pairwise interactions of these residues.(More)
The activating NKG2D receptor plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses by natural killer cells and subpopulations of T cells. The human receptor assembles with the DAP10 signaling dimer, and it is thought that one NKG2D homodimer pairs with a single DAP10 dimer by formation of two salt bridges between charged transmembrane (TM)(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that cell membranes provide a unique environment for protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that are critical for the assembly and function of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex. Highly specific polar interactions among transmembrane (TM) domains that are uniquely favorable in the lipid environment organize the(More)
Activating receptors in cells of hematopoetic origin include members of two unrelated protein families, the immunoglobulin (Ig) and C type lectins, which differ even in the orientation of the transmembrane (TM) domains. We examined assembly of four receptors with diverse function: the NK receptors KIR2DS and NKG2C/CD94, the Fc receptor for IgA, and the GPVI(More)
Each of the many different cell types of the immune system expresses one or several activating receptors which serve a central role in the cell's surveillance function. Many of these cell-surface receptors share a distinctive modular design that consists of a ligand-binding module with no intrinsic signalling capability that is non-covalently associated(More)
Rapid binding of peptides to MHC class II molecules is normally limited to a deep endosomal compartment where the coordinate action of low pH and HLA-DM displaces the invariant chain remnant CLIP or other peptides from the binding site. Exogenously added peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation for extended periods of time before they reach the(More)
B cells from patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) who are heterozygous for transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) mutation C104R, which abolishes ligand binding, fail to produce Igs in response to TACI ligand. It is not known whether this is due to haploinsufficiency or dominant interference. Using in vitro transfection assays,(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of endogenous short RNAs that repress gene expression. Many miRNAs are conserved throughout evolution, and dysregulation of miRNA pathways has been correlated with an increasing number of human diseases. In animals, miRNAs typically bind to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs with imperfect sequence(More)
The mechanisms of HLA-DM-catalyzed peptide exchange remain uncertain. Here we found that all stages of the interaction of HLA-DM with HLA-DR were dependent on the occupancy state of the peptide-binding groove. High-affinity peptides were protected from removal by HLA-DM through two mechanisms: peptide binding induced the dissociation of a long-lived complex(More)