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BACKGROUND Low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), are widely used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Surprisingly little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral/cognitive actions of these drugs. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in ADHD. Moreover, dopamine (DA) and(More)
This study examined the effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and the CB1 antagonist SR-141716 on open-field behaviors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were examined after administration of Delta(9)-THC alone (dose range: 0.3-5.6 mg/kg), SR-141716 alone (dose range: 1-5.6 mg/kg) and the two drugs in combination; injections were given(More)
Intra-nucleus accumbens (Acb) infusion of cholinergic muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine (10 microg/0.5 microl), markedly reduced fat intake elicited by intra-Acb treatment of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, with 30 min and 4h pretreatment intervals. Intra-Acb scopolamine infusions also reduced food intake in food-deprived rats, but not water intake(More)
Glutamate-coded signaling in corticostriatal circuits has been shown to be important in various forms of learning and memory. In the present study, the authors found that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the posterior lateral striatum (PLS) impaired instrumental conditioning but had no effect(More)
Previous work has implicated the cholinergic system in modulating feeding behavior; however, its specific function remains unclear. This work aims to characterize potential dissociations between the central cholinergic modulation of the incentive properties of food and food-associated cues, and consummatory behaviors. Three separate experiments demonstrated(More)
Low dose amphetamine (AMPH) and methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin(®)) are the most widely prescribed and most effective pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Certain low, clinically relevant doses of MPH improve sustained attention and working memory in normal rats, in contrast to higher doses that impair cognitive ability and(More)
Opioid transmission and dysregulated prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity have both been implicated in the inhibitory-control deficits associated with addiction and binge-type eating disorders. What remains unknown, however, is whether endogenous opioid transmission within the PFC modulates inhibitory control. Here, we compared intra-PFC opioid manipulations(More)
Using a successive discrimination procedure with rats, three experiments investigated the contribution of reinforcement rate and amount of S(Delta) exposure on the acquisition of an operant discrimination. S(D) components and were always 2 min in length, while S(Delta) (extinction) components were either 1 min or 4 min in length; responses in S(D) were(More)
Neural integration of glutamate- and dopamine-coded signals within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a fundamental process governing cellular plasticity underlying reward-related learning. Intra-NAc core blockade of NMDA or D1 receptors in rats impairs instrumental learning (lever-pressing for sugar pellets), but it is not known during which phase of learning(More)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD(More)