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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
Although considerable progress has been made in dissecting the signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response, it is now apparent that this response can no longer be productively thought of in terms of simple linear pathways. InnateDB (www.innatedb.ca) has been developed to facilitate systems-level analyses that will provide better insight into(More)
Pseudomonas is a metabolically-diverse genus of bacteria known for its flexibility and leading free living to pathogenic lifestyles in a wide range of hosts. The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) integrates completely-sequenced Pseudomonas genome sequences and their annotations with genome-scale, high-precision computational(More)
UNLABELLED As the genome sequences of multiple strains of a given bacterial species are obtained, more generalized bacterial genome databases may be complemented by databases that are focused on providing more information geared for a distinct bacterial phylogenetic group and its associated research community. The Burkholderia Genome Database represents a(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-studied opportunistic pathogen that is particularly known for its intrinsic antimicrobial resistance, diverse metabolic capacity, and its ability to cause life threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) was originally developed as a resource for(More)
Sequence data from the past decade has laid bare the significance of horizontal gene transfer in creating genetic diversity in the bacterial world. Regulatory evolution, in which non-coding DNA is mutated to create new regulatory nodes, also contributes to this diversity to allow niche adaptation and the evolution of pathogenesis. To survive in the host(More)
Soil microorganisms mediate many nutrient transformations that are central in terrestrial cycling of carbon and nitrogen. However, uptake of organic nutrients by microorganisms is difficult to study in natural systems. We assessed quantum dots (fluorescent nanoscale semiconductors) as a new tool to observe uptake and translocation of organic nitrogen by(More)
Prediction of orthologs (homologous genes that diverged because of speciation) is an integral component of many comparative genomics methods. Although orthologs are more likely to have similar function versus paralogs (genes that diverged because of duplication), recent studies have shown that their degree of functional conservation is variable. Also, there(More)
We examined the extent to which arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi root improved the acquisition of simple organic nitrogen (ON) compounds by their host plants. In a greenhouse-based study, we used quantum dots (fluorescent nanoparticles) to assess uptake of each of the 20 proteinaceous amino acids by AM-colonized versus uncolonized plants. We found that AM(More)
Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate(More)