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Plastids represent a diverse group of organelles that perform essential metabolic and signaling functions within all plant cells. The differentiation of specific plastid types relies on the import of selective sets of proteins from among the approximately 2500 nucleus-encoded plastid proteins. The Toc159 family of GTPases mediates the initial targeting of(More)
The import of nucleus-encoded preproteins into plastids requires the coordinated activities of membrane protein complexes that facilitate the translocation of polypeptides across the envelope double membrane. Tic20 was identified previously as a component of the import machinery of the inner envelope membrane by covalent cross-linking studies with trapped(More)
An abridged five-item version of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was developed (IIEF-5) to diagnose the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction (ED). The five items selected were based on ability to identify the presence or absence of ED and on adherence to the National Institute of Health's definition of ED. These items(More)
ADP plays a critical role in modulating thrombosis and hemostasis. ADP initiates platelet aggregation by simultaneous activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. Activation of P2Y1 activates phospholipase C and triggers shape change, while P2Y12 couples to Gi to reduce adenylyl cyclase activity. P2Y12 has been shown to be the target of(More)
The multimeric translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (Toc) initiates the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded preproteins into chloroplasts. Two Toc GTPases, Toc159 and Toc33/34, mediate preprotein recognition and regulate preprotein translocation. Although these two proteins account for the requirement of GTP hydrolysis for import,(More)
The members of the Toc159 family of GTPases act as the primary receptors for the import of nucleus-encoded preproteins into plastids. Toc159, the most abundant member of this family in chloroplasts, is required for chloroplast biogenesis (Bauer, J., K. Chen, A. Hiltbunner, E. Wehrli, M. Eugster, D. Schnell, and F. Kessler. 2000. Nature. 403:203-207) and has(More)
BACKGROUND Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are a distinct class of membrane proteins that are sorted post-translationally to various organelles and function in a number of important cellular processes, including redox reactions, vesicular trafficking and protein translocation. While the molecular targeting signals and pathways responsible for sorting TA(More)
This unit describes protocols for isolating chloroplasts from pea (Pisum sativum) and Arabidopsis thaliana for the study of nuclear-encoded plastid precursor proteins. Chloroplasts from both preparations are competent for the in vitro import of recombinant preproteins synthesized using in vitro translation systems derived from reticulocyte or wheat germ(More)
Adsorption is one important technique in fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The viability of adsorption techniques is greatly dependent on the development of adsorptive materials. A large number of materials have been tested at a fluoride concentration greater than 2 mg/l, and the lowest limit for fluoride reduction by them is about 2 mg/l. Decreasing(More)
A variety of transcription factors are targets for conjugation to the ubiquitin-like protein Smt3 (also called SUMO). While many such factors exhibit enhanced activity under conditions that favor conjugation, the mechanisms behind this enhancement are largely unknown. We previously showed that the Drosophila melanogaster rel family factor, Dorsal, is a(More)