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Trimethylation on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The mechanisms controlling the activity and recruitment of PRC2 are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the founding member of the Jumonji family, JMJ (JUMONJI or(More)
The Xist long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is essential for X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), the process by which mammals compensate for unequal numbers of sex chromosomes. During XCI, Xist coats the future inactive X chromosome (Xi) and recruits Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to the X-inactivation centre (Xic). How Xist spreads silencing on a 150-megabases(More)
High throughput sequencing is frequently used to discover the location of regulatory interactions on chromatin. However, techniques that enrich DNA where regulatory activity takes place, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), often yield less DNA than optimal for sequencing library preparation. Existing protocols for picogram-scale libraries require(More)
Histone lysine residues can be mono-, di-, or trimethylated. These posttranslational modifications regulate the affinity of effector proteins and may also impact chromatin structure independent of their role as adaptors. In order to study histone lysine methylation, particularly in the context of chromatin, we have developed a chemical approach to install(More)
The transcriptional status of a gene can be maintained through multiple rounds of cell division during development. This epigenetic effect is believed to reflect heritable changes in chromatin folding and histone modifications or variants at target genes, but little is known about how these chromatin features are inherited through cell division. A(More)
Fragile X syndrome, a common form of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP. FMRP is present predominantly in the cytoplasm, where it regulates translation of proteins that are important for synaptic function. We identify FMRP as a chromatin-binding protein that functions in the DNA damage(More)
Mutants of engrailed homeodomain (HD) that retain DNA-binding activity were isolated using a phage display selection. This selection was used to enrich for active DNA-binding clones from a complex library consisting of over a billion members. A more focused library of mutant homeodomains consisting of all possible amino acid combinations at two(More)
The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Xist is a master regulator of X-chromosome inactivation in mammalian cells. Models for how Xist and other lncRNAs function depend on thermodynamically stable secondary and higher-order structures that RNAs can form in the context of a cell. Probing accessible RNA bases can provide data to build models of RNA conformation(More)
The homeodomain (HD)-DNA interface has been conserved over 500 million years of evolution. Despite this conservation, we have successfully re-engineered the engrailed HD to specifically recognize an unnatural nucleotide using a phage display selection. Here we report the synthesis of novel nucleosides and the selection of mutant HDs that bind these(More)
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