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Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of DNA sequence data from 10 nuclear loci were used to test species divergence hypotheses within Passerina buntings, with special focus on a strongly supported, but controversial, sister relationship between Passerina amoena and P. caerulea inferred from a previous mitochondrial study. Here, a maximum-likelihood(More)
Environmental heterogeneity largely dictates the spatial distributions of parasites and therefore the susceptibility to infection of host populations. We surveyed avian malaria infections in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) across replicated altitudinal and latitudinal transects along the western slope of the Peruvian Andes to assess(More)
Using cline fitting and divergence population genetics, we tested a prediction of Haldane's rule: autosomal alleles should introgress more than z-linked alleles or mitochondrial haplotypes across the Passerina amoena/Passerina cyanea (Aves: Cardinalidae) hybrid zone. We screened 222 individuals collected along a transect in the Great Plains of North America(More)
Sex-chromosomes are thought to play an important role in speciation, but few studies of non-model organisms have investigated the relative influence of multiple sex-linked markers on reproductive isolation. We collected 222 individuals along a geographical transect spanning the hybrid zone between Passerina amoena and P. cyanea (Aves: Cardinalidae). Using(More)
Quantifying the role of gene flow during the divergence of closely related species is crucial to understanding the process of speciation. We collected DNA sequence data from 20 loci (one mitochondrial, 13 autosomal, and six sex-linked) for population samples of Lazuli Buntings (Passerina amoena) and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea) (Aves: Cardinalidae) to(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly variable family of genes involved in parasite recognition and the initiation of adaptive immune system responses. Variation in MHC loci is maintained primarily through parasite-mediated selection or disassortative mate choice. To characterize MHC diversity of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia(More)
The PDGF family consists of at least four members, PDGF-A, -B, -C, and -D. All of the PDGF isoforms bind and signal through two known receptors, PDGF receptor-alpha and PDGF receptor-beta, which are constitutively expressed in the kidney and are upregulated in specific diseases. It is well established that PDGF-B plays a pivotal role in the mediation of(More)
One of the most novel foraging strategies in Neotropical birds is army-ant-following, in which birds prey upon arthropods and small vertebrates flushed from the forest floor by swarm raids of the army-ant Eciton burchellii. This specialization is most developed in the typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae) which are divisible into three specialization(More)
BACKGROUND Theoretical work suggests that data from multiple nuclear loci provide better estimates of population genetic parameters than do single loci, but just how many loci are needed and how much sequence is required from each has been little explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS To investigate how much data is required to estimate the population(More)
Engagement of immunoglobulin-binding receptors (FcgammaR) on leukocytes and other cell types is one means by which immunoglobulins and immune complexes activate effector cells. One of these FcgammaRs, FcgammaRIIb, is thought to contribute to protection from autoimmune disease by down-regulation of B-cell responsiveness and myeloid cell activation. We(More)