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This paper is concerned with a striking visual experience: that of seeing geometric visual hallucinations. Hallucinatory images were classified by Klüver into four groups called form constants comprising (i) gratings, lattices, fretworks, filigrees, honeycombs and chequer-boards, (ii) cobwebs, (iii) tunnels, funnels, alleys, cones and vessels, and (iv)(More)
Both spike count and temporal modulation are known to carry information about which of a set of stimuli elicited a response; but how much information temporal modulation adds remains a subject of debate. This question usually is addressed by examining the results of a particular experiment that depend on the specific stimuli used. Developing a response(More)
Many observers see geometric visual hallucinations after taking hallucinogens such as LSD, cannabis, mescaline or psilocybin; on viewing bright flickering lights; on waking up or falling asleep; in "near-death" experiences; and in many other syndromes. Klüver organized the images into four groups called form constants: (I) tunnels and funnels, (II) spirals,(More)
Are different kinds of stimuli (for example, different classes of geometric images or naturalistic images) encoded differently by visual cortex, or are the principles of encoding the same for all stimuli? We examine two response properties: (1) the range of spike counts that can be elicited from a neuron in epochs representative of short periods of fixation(More)
Interpreting messages encoded in single neuronal responses requires knowing which features of the responses carry information. That the number of spikes is an important part of the code has long been obvious. In recent years, it has been shown that modulation of the firing rate with about 25 ms precision carries information that is not available from the(More)
To dissect common human diseases such as obesity and diabetes, a systematic approach is needed to study how genes interact with one another, and with genetic and environmental factors, to determine clinical end points or disease phenotypes. Bayesian networks provide a convenient framework for extracting relationships from noisy data and are frequently(More)
Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample) stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching) stimuli wipe out the(More)
Usually the conditional probabilities needed to calculate transmitted information are estimated directly from empirically measured distributions. Here we show that an explicit model of the relation between response strength (here, spike count) and its variability allows accurate estimates of transmitted information. This method of estimating information is(More)
It is important to validate models of neural data using appropriate goodness-of-fit measures. Models summarizing some response features--for example, spike count distributions or peristimulus time histograms--can be assessed using standard statistical tools. Measuring the fit of a full point-process model of spike trains is more difficult. Recently,(More)