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Administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) induces a surge of luteinizing hormone and ovulation in a variety of species, including human beings. Our objectives were to determine the effect of follicle size at the time of ovulation on corpus luteum function and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in cows in which ovulation was either(More)
The dairy industry in the United States has changed dramatically in the last decade. Milk production per cow has increased steadily because of a combination of improved management, better nutrition, and intense genetic selection. Dairy farms are larger, and nearly 30% of the dairy cows in the United States are on farms with 500 or more cows. The shift(More)
Management, nutrition, production, and genetics are the main reasons for the decline in fertility in the modern dairy cow. Selection for the single trait of milk production with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction in the modern dairy cow has produced an antagonistic relationship between milk yield and reproductive performance. The(More)
The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene in cattle is expressed as multiple GHR mRNA variants that differ in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). Three GHR mRNA 5'-UTR variants (named 1A, 1B, and 1C) were isolated in previous studies. Six additional GHR mRNA 5'-UTR variants (named 1D, 1E, 1F, 1G, 1H, and 1I) were discovered in the present study by using rapid(More)
GH receptor (GHR) messenger RNA (mRNA) is transcribed from at least three different promoters within the liver of cattle. The first promoter (P1) is liver specific and alternatively splices exon 1A onto the GHR mRNA (GHR 1A mRNA). The second and third promoters (P2 and P3) have constitutive activity in many tissues and alternatively splice exons 1B and 1C(More)
Studies of ovarian follicular dynamics in cattle may lead to methods for improving fertility, for synchronizing estrus with more precision, and for enhancing superovulatory responses. Within an estrous cycle, two or three large (> 10 mm) follicles develop during consecutive waves of follicular growth. The last wave provides the ovulatory follicle, whereas(More)
Early lactation in dairy cattle is a period of severe negative energy balance (NEB) characterized by reduced blood glucose and insulin concentrations and elevated blood GH concentrations. The liver is refractory to GH during NEB and this uncoupling of the GH-IGF axis results in diminished plasma concentrations of IGF-I. Our objectives were to examine the(More)
In 3 separate trials at 2 locations, dairy heifers (n = 396) were treated with a Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) progesterone device for 9 d. On Day 7 of CIDR treatment, all heifers were injected with PGF(2alpha). Synchronized estruses were detected using a tailpaint and chalk (TPC) scoring system. An animal's tailhead was painted at device(More)
A decrease in insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (BP) amount occurs within the follicular fluid of dominant ovarian follicles. At the same time, concentrations of follicular fluid IGF-I do not change. The mRNA for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3, in dominant and subordinate follicles were measured to determine if changes in IGF or IGFBP(More)
The GH receptor 1A mRNA (GHR 1A mRNA) is one of the major GHR mRNA variants that differ in the 5'-untranslated region. The GHR 1A mRNA is unique because it is exclusively expressed in liver. The objective of the present study was to understand the mechanism for the liver-specific expression of the GHR 1A mRNA in the bovine. Twenty-six kilobases of(More)