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OBJECTIVES We measured the psychosocial effect of orphanhood in a sub-Saharan African population and evaluated a new framework for understanding the causes and consequences of psychosocial distress among orphans and other vulnerable children. METHODS The framework was evaluated using data from 5321 children aged 12 to 17 years who were interviewed in a(More)
Education has a potentially important role to play in tackling the spread of HIV, but is there evidence that this potential is realized? This analysis combines the results of previous literature reviews and updates them with the findings of recent randomized controlled trials and a discussion of possible mechanisms for the effect of schooling on(More)
Cross-sectional studies of the relationship between helminth infection and cognitive function can be informative in ways that treatment studies cannot. However, interpretation of results of many previous studies has been complicated by the failure to control for many potentially confounding variables. We gave Tanzanian schoolchildren aged 9-14 a battery of(More)
Iron-deficiency anemia is among the world's most widespread health problems, especially for children, but it is rarely studied by economists. This paper evaluates the impact of a health intervention delivering iron supplementation and deworming drugs to 2-6 year old children through an existing preschool network in the slums of Delhi, India. At baseline 69(More)
background information to assist in drafting the 2007 report. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the EFA Global Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: " Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring(More)
Two billion people are infected with intestinal worms [1]. In many areas, the majority of schoolchildren are infected, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for school-based mass deworming. The key area for debate is not whether deworming medicine works—in fact, the medical literature finds that treatment is highly effective [2], and thus the(More)
Malnutrition and infectious diseases in infancy and early childhood have an impact on the cognitive development of children in developing countries. The long-term effects of these diseases are less well understood. A number of studies relate early malnutrition, iron deficiency, and malaria infection to poor cognitive abilities in the school-age years. The(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the long-term impact of early childhood malaria prophylaxis on cognitive and educational outcomes. DESIGN This was a household-based cluster-controlled intervention trial. SETTING The study was conducted in 15 villages situated between 32 km to the east and 22 km to the west of the town of Farafenni, the Gambia, on the north(More)