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OBJECTIVES This study measured the impact of auditory spectral resolution on listening effort. Systematic degradation in spectral resolution was hypothesized to elicit corresponding systematic increases in pupil dilation, consistent with the notion of pupil dilation as a marker of cognitive load. DESIGN Spectral resolution of sentences was varied with two(More)
In this study, spectral properties of speech sounds were used to test functional spectral resolution in people who use cochlear implants (CIs). Specifically, perception of the /ba/-/da/ contrast was tested using two spectral cues: Formant transitions (a fine-resolution cue) and spectral tilt (a coarse-resolution cue). Higher weighting of the formant cues(More)
There is a wide range of acoustic and visual variability across different talkers and different speaking contexts. Listeners with normal hearing (NH) accommodate that variability in ways that facilitate efficient perception, but it is not known whether listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) can do the same. In this study, listeners with NH and listeners(More)
Vowel perception is influenced by precursor sounds that are resynthesized to shift frequency regions [Ladefoged and Broadbent (1957). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29(1), 98-104] or filtered to emphasize narrow [Kiefte and Kluender (2008). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123(1), 366-376] or broad frequency regions [Watkins (1991). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90(6), 2942-2955]. Spectral(More)
Although some cochlear implant (CI) listeners can show good word recognition accuracy, it is not clear how they perceive and use the various acoustic cues that contribute to phonetic perceptions. In this study, the use of acoustic cues was assessed for normal-hearing (NH) listeners in optimal and spectrally degraded conditions, and also for CI listeners.(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are characterized by bacterial infections, excess mucus production, and robust neutrophil recruitment. The main CF airway pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neutrophils are not capable of clearing the infection. Neutrophil primary granule components, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE), are inflammatory(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease is characterized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes. Neutrophil granule components (myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE)), extracellular DNA and P. aeruginosa can all be found in the CF respiratory tract and have all been associated with worsening CF lung(More)
PURPOSE The contributions of voice onset time (VOT) and fundamental frequency (F0) were evaluated for the perception of voicing in syllable-initial stop consonants in words that were low-pass filtered and/or masked by speech-shaped noise. It was expected that listeners would rely less on VOT and more on F0 in these degraded conditions. METHOD Twenty young(More)
PURPOSE This study investigated how listeners' native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. METHOD Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification task on nonce(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections often characterized by robust neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophils provide the first line of defense against P. aeruginosa. Aside from their defense conferred by phagocytic activity, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to immobilize bacteria. Although(More)