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BACKGROUND Latent genetic instability has been associated with an increased risk for several cancers. We used the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) to assess whether genetic instability, as reflected by susceptibility to DNA damage, was associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study. METHODS We used the comet assay to(More)
Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40.(More)
"Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable risk prediction tools for estimating individual probability of lung cancer have important public health implications. We constructed and validated a comprehensive clinical tool for lung cancer risk prediction by smoking status. METHODS Epidemiologic data from 1851 lung cancer patients and 2001 matched control subjects were randomly(More)
Given that there are millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire human genome, a major difficulty faced by scientists in planning costly population-based genotyping is to choose target SNPs that are most likely to affect phenotypic functions and ultimately contribute to disease development. Although it is widely accepted that sequences(More)
PURPOSE To date, there are few published data regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and lung cancer risk. Therefore, we analyzed data regarding HRT use from a large case-control study designed to study genetic susceptibility to lung cancer to determine whether HRT affected risk of lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN In a secondary analysis,(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) contribute to tumor microenvironment and are associated with bladder cancer. A study examining the association between MMP polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk has never been published. We analyzed the association of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one microsatellite polymorphism in MMP genes MMP-1, MMP-2,(More)
CONTEXT Despite lung-specific in vitro and in vivo studies that support a chemopreventive role for phytoestrogens, there has been little epidemiologic research focused on dietary intake of phytoestrogens and risk of lung cancer. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between dietary intake of phytoestrogens and risk of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
Two CT features were developed to quantitatively describe lung adenocarcinomas by scoring tumor shape complexity (feature 1: convexity) and intratumor density variation (feature 2: entropy ratio) in routinely obtained diagnostic CT scans. The developed quantitative features were analyzed in two independent cohorts (cohort 1: n = 61; cohort 2: n = 47) of(More)
While mutations in the KRAS oncogene are among the most prevalent in human cancer, there are few successful treatments to target these tumors. It is also likely that heterogeneity in KRAS-mutant tumor biology significantly contributes to the response to therapy. We hypothesized that the presence of commonly co-occurring mutations in STK11 and TP53 tumor(More)