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Sulfotransferases (SULT) catalyze both the bioactivation and detoxification of a wide range of promutagens and procarcinogens. SULT1A1 appears to be an important phenol SULT because of its abundance and distribution in many tissues and wide substrate specificity. The SULT1A1 gene possesses a G-->A polymorphism that results in an Arg to His amino acid(More)
"Radiomics" refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography, positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable risk prediction tools for estimating individual probability of lung cancer have important public health implications. We constructed and validated a comprehensive clinical tool for lung cancer risk prediction by smoking status. METHODS Epidemiologic data from 1851 lung cancer patients and 2001 matched control subjects were randomly(More)
Spirometric measures of lung function are heritable traits that reflect respiratory health and predict morbidity and mortality. We meta-analyzed genome-wide association studies for two clinically important lung-function measures: forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC), an indicator of(More)
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low folate intake and an increased cancer risk. Major genes involved in folate metabolism include methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS). We investigated joint effects of polymorphisms of the MTHFR (677 C-->T, 1298A-->C) and MS genes (2756 A-->G), dietary folate(More)
Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40.(More)
BACKGROUND Latent genetic instability has been associated with an increased risk for several cancers. We used the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) to assess whether genetic instability, as reflected by susceptibility to DNA damage, was associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study. METHODS We used the comet assay to(More)
INTRODUCTION The nucleotide excision repair gene, xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD), has been hypothesized to have a role in cancer risk, but results from prior molecular epidemiologic studies and genotype-phenotype analyses are conflicting. MATERIALS AND METHODS We examined the frequency of the XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism in exon 10 and(More)
PURPOSE To date, there are few published data regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and lung cancer risk. Therefore, we analyzed data regarding HRT use from a large case-control study designed to study genetic susceptibility to lung cancer to determine whether HRT affected risk of lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN In a secondary analysis,(More)
BACKGROUND The influence of smoking on the natural history of HPV infection in men is not well understood. Smoking could influence the incidence and persistence of HPV infections by suppressing local immune function, increased cellular proliferation, upregulated proinflammatory factors, or induced host DNA damage resulting in increased susceptibility to(More)