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Methods to measure consistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality) fall into two categories, subjective ratings and behavioral codings. Ratings are seldom used despite being potentially more efficient than codings. One potential limitation for the use of ratings is that it is assumed that long-term observers or experts in the field(More)
Describing and quantifying animal personality is now an integral part of behavioural studies because individually distinctive behaviours have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Yet, to fully understand how personality traits may respond to selection, one must understand the underlying heritability and genetic correlations between traits. Previous(More)
Multiple mating and multiple paternity in polytocous species have been mostly studied from an adaptive (i.e., cost–benefit) perspective. Disease, time, energy, and the risk of injuries are well-known costs of multiple mating, yet from both male and female perspectives, a number of genetic and non-genetic benefits have also been identified. The effects of(More)
Between-individual variation in phenotypes within a population is the basis of evolution. However, evolutionary and behavioural ecologists have mainly focused on estimating between-individual variance in mean trait and neglected variation in within-individual variance, or predictability of a trait. In fact, an important assumption of mixed-effects models(More)
Maternal effects can have significant and long-term consequences on offspring behavior and survival, while consistent individual differences (i.e., personality) can have profound impacts on individual fitness. Thus, both can influence population dynamics. However, the underlying mechanisms that determine variation in personality traits are poorly(More)
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