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The lead candidate plague subunit vaccine is the recombinant fusion protein rF1-V adjuvanted with alum. While alum generates Th2 regulated robust humoral responses, immune protection against Yersinia pestis has been shown to also involve Th1 driven cellular responses. Therefore, the rF1-V-based subunit vaccine may benefit from an adjuvant system that(More)
RovA is a MarR/SlyA-type regulator that mediates the transcription of inv in Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. In Y. pseudotuberculosis, rovA transcription is controlled primarily by H-NS and RovA, which bind to similar regions within the rovA promoter. At 37 degrees C, rovA transcription is repressed by H-NS. Transcription of rovA results(More)
VlsE is a 35-kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that was shown previously to undergo antigenic variation through segmental recombination of silent vls cassettes with vlsE during experimental mouse infections. Previous data had indicated that sera from North American Lyme disease patients and experimentally infected animals contained(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete that causes Lyme borreliosis, contains 21 linear and circular plasmids thought to be important for survival in mammals or ticks. Our results demonstrate that the gene BBE22 encoding a nicotinamidase is capable of replacing the requirement for the 25 kb linear plasmid lp25 during mammalian infection. Transformation of B.(More)
The presence of the linear plasmids lp25 and lp56 of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 was found to dramatically decrease the rate of transformation by electroporation with the shuttle vector pBSV2, an autonomously replicating plasmid that confers kanamycin resistance (P. E. Stewart, R. Thalken, J. L. Bono, and P. Rosa, Mol. Microbiol. 39:714-721, 2001). B.(More)
Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic Gram-negative organism and the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Y. pestis is capable of causing major epidemics; thus, there is a need for vaccine targets and a greater understanding of the role of these targets in pathogenesis. Two prime Y. pestis vaccine candidates are the usher-chaperone fimbriae Psa(More)
VlsE is an outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that undergoes antigenic variation through an elaborate gene conversion mechanism and is thought to play a major role in the immune response to the Lyme disease borellia. The crystal structure of recombinant variant protein VlsE1 at 2.3-A resolution reveals that the six variable regions form loop(More)
The loss of linear plasmid lp28-1, which contains the vls antigenic variation locus, is associated with reduced infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in immunocompetent mice. The recombinant shuttle vector pBBE22, which includes the virulence determinant BBE22 from lp25 and restores infectivity to readily transformable B. burgdorferi lacking lp25 and lp56,(More)
Mice deficient in complement component C3 (C3(-/-)) and syngeneic C57BL/6 control mice were challenged with Borrelia burgdorferi to determine the role of complement in immune clearance and joint histopathology during experimental Lyme borreliosis. Tibiotarsal joint, ear, and heart tissues were monitored for spirochete numbers at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks(More)
Yersinia pestis CO92 has 12 open reading frames encoding putative conventional autotransporters (yaps), nine of which appear to produce functional proteins. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the Yap proteins to localize to the cell surface of both Escherichia coli and Yersinia pestis and show that a subset of these proteins undergoes processing by(More)