Matthew B. Grisham

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The purpose of this position paper is to present a critical analysis of the challenges and limitations of the most widely used fluorescent probes for detecting and measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Where feasible, we have made recommendations for the use of alternate probes and appropriate analytical techniques that measure the specific(More)
Facile detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in biologic systems is often problematic. This is a result of the numerous cellular mechanisms, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic involved in their catabolism/decomposition, the complex and overlapping nature of their reactivities, as well as the often limited intracellular access of detector systems.(More)
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammation represents one of the most studied yet controversial subjects in physiology. A number of reports have demonstrated that NO possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties, whereas an equally impressive number of studies suggest that NO may promote inflammation-induced cell and tissue dysfunction. The reasons for(More)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) are a collection of chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. Although the pathophysiology of IBD is not known with certainty, a growing body of experimental and clinical data suggests that chronic gut inflammation may result from a dysregulated immune(More)
A growing body of experimental data indicates that reactive oxygen metabolites such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical may mediate the mucosal injury produced by reperfusion of ischemic intestine. Xanthine oxidase has been proposed as the primary source of these reduced O2 species because pretreatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is limited by their ability to induce gastrointestinal injury. Two NSAIDs were modified by incorporation of an nitroxybutyl moiety. The short-term ulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of these derivatives were compared with the native NSAIDs. METHODS Rats were given(More)
Isolated human neutrophilic leukocytes were stimulated to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and to secrete cytoplasmic granule components including myeloperoxidase into the medium. Myeloperoxidase catalyzed the oxidation of chloride (Cl-) by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which reacted with endogenous nitrogen compounds to yield derivatives(More)
The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of acute and chronic intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation induced by subcutaneously injected indomethacin (Indo). One injection of Indo (7.5 mg/kg) produced acute injury and inflammation in the distal jejunum and proximal ileum that were maximal at three days and completely resolved within(More)