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Facile detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in biologic systems is often problematic. This is a result of the numerous cellular mechanisms, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic involved in their catabolism/decomposition, the complex and overlapping nature of their reactivities, as well as the often limited intracellular access of detector systems.(More)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) are a collection of chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. Although the pathophysiology of IBD is not known with certainty, a growing body of experimental and clinical data suggests that chronic gut inflammation may result from a dysregulated immune(More)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing conditions of multifactorial etiology. The two primary diseases of IBD are Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Both entities are hypothesized to occur in genetically susceptible individuals due to microbial alterations and environmental contributions. The exact etiopathogenesis, however,(More)
Oxygen-derived free radicals and other reactive oxygen metabolites have emerged as a common pathway of tissue injury in a wide variety of otherwise disparate disease processes. This has given rise to the hope that efforts directed towards the pharmacologic control of free radical-mediated tissue injury (Reilly, P.M., Schiller, H. J. and Bulkley, G. B.(More)
A growing body of experimental data indicates that reactive oxygen metabolites such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical may mediate the mucosal injury produced by reperfusion of ischemic intestine. Xanthine oxidase has been proposed as the primary source of these reduced O2 species because pretreatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors(More)
Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are partially reduced oxygen species that include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypohalous acids. Formation of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide may be injurious to tissue directly; however, it is thought that the primary mediators of tissue damage are the secondarily derived oxidants such as hydroxyl(More)
The inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease; ulcerative colitis) are idiopathic chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. A major advancement in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases has been the development of mouse models of chronic gut inflammation. One model that has been instrumental in delineating the(More)
The objective of this study was to assess the role that nitric oxide (NO) may play in mediating the colonic inflammation observed in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The NOS inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 15 mumol/kg/day) and aminoguanidine (AG; 15(More)