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BACKGROUND An effective vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites. METHODS We exposed 15 healthy volunteers--with 10 assigned to(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also structures from fungal and mycobacterial pathogens, as well as endogenous ligands. Two nonsynonymous polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have been suggested to alter the function of the(More)
Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from(More)
BACKGROUND Caspase-12 functions as an antiinflammatory enzyme inhibiting caspase-1 and the NOD2/RIP2 pathways. Due to increased susceptibility to sepsis in individuals with functional caspase-12, an early-stop mutation leading to the loss of caspase-12 has replaced the ancient genotype in Eurasia and a significant proportion of individuals from African(More)
INTRODUCTION Interethnic differences in susceptibility to malaria provide a unique opportunity to explore immunological correlates of protection. The Fulani of Sahelian Africa are known for their reduced susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, compared with surrounding tribes, yet the immunology underlying this is still poorly understood. METHODS AND(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of enzymes involved in phase-II detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Polymorphisms in GST genes have been associated with susceptibility to different diseases. In this study we determined the frequencies of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in DNA of 138 children from Cameroon,(More)
Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. Studies of the consequences of helminth and malaria coinfection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. In this study, we investigated the antimalarial immune responses of Ghanaian children living in a rural area(More)
Immune responses against Plasmodium parasites, the causative organisms of malaria, are traditionally dichotomized into pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage components. Whereas the central role of cellular responses in pre-erythrocytic immunity is well established, protection against blood-stage parasites has generally been ascribed to humoral responses. A(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that immunity to infection with Plasmodium falciparum can be induced experimentally in malaria-naive volunteers through immunisation by bites of infected mosquitoes while simultaneously preventing disease with chloroquine prophylaxis. This immunity was associated with parasite-specific production of interferon γ and interleukin 2 by(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia occurs early during malarial infection, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF) occurs on endothelial cell activation, and it plays an important role in platelet agglutination. METHODS In 14 healthy human volunteers who were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum, we studied(More)