Matthew B B McCall

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BACKGROUND An effective vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites. METHODS We exposed 15 healthy volunteers--with 10 assigned to(More)
Infectious diseases exert a constant evolutionary pressure on the genetic makeup of our innate immune system. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been related to susceptibility to Gram-negative infections and septic shock. Here we show that two polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have unique distributions in populations from(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also structures from fungal and mycobacterial pathogens, as well as endogenous ligands. Two nonsynonymous polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile, have been suggested to alter the function of the(More)
We examined the hypothesis that recovery from uncomplicated malaria in patients carrying drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a measure of acquired functional immunity and may therefore be associated with humoral responses to candidate vaccine antigens. Gambian children with malaria were treated with chloroquine in 28-day trials, and recovery was defined(More)
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of enzymes involved in phase-II detoxification of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Polymorphisms in GST genes have been associated with susceptibility to different diseases. In this study we determined the frequencies of polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in DNA of 138 children from Cameroon,(More)
BACKGROUND Caspase-12 functions as an antiinflammatory enzyme inhibiting caspase-1 and the NOD2/RIP2 pathways. Due to increased susceptibility to sepsis in individuals with functional caspase-12, an early-stop mutation leading to the loss of caspase-12 has replaced the ancient genotype in Eurasia and a significant proportion of individuals from African(More)
Immune responses against Plasmodium parasites, the causative organisms of malaria, are traditionally dichotomized into pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage components. Whereas the central role of cellular responses in pre-erythrocytic immunity is well established, protection against blood-stage parasites has generally been ascribed to humoral responses. A(More)
TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 responses in whole blood ex vivo stimulations were characterized by(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia occurs early during malarial infection, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF) occurs on endothelial cell activation, and it plays an important role in platelet agglutination. METHODS In 14 healthy human volunteers who were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum, we studied(More)
Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. Studies of the consequences of helminth and malaria coinfection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. In this study, we investigated the antimalarial immune responses of Ghanaian children living in a rural area(More)