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BACKGROUND Caspase-12 functions as an antiinflammatory enzyme inhibiting caspase-1 and the NOD2/RIP2 pathways. Due to increased susceptibility to sepsis in individuals with functional caspase-12, an early-stop mutation leading to the loss of caspase-12 has replaced the ancient genotype in Eurasia and a significant proportion of individuals from African(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that immunity to infection with Plasmodium falciparum can be induced experimentally in malaria-naive volunteers through immunisation by bites of infected mosquitoes while simultaneously preventing disease with chloroquine prophylaxis. This immunity was associated with parasite-specific production of interferon γ and interleukin 2 by(More)
TLRs are a major group of pattern recognition receptors that are crucial in initiating innate immune responses and are capable of recognizing Plasmodium ligands. We have investigated TLR responses during acute experimental P. falciparum (P.f.) infection in 15 malaria-naive volunteers. TLR-4 responses in whole blood ex vivo stimulations were characterized by(More)
Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum parasites, in particular interferon-gamma (IFNγ) production, play an important role in anti-malarial immunity. However, clinical immunity to malaria develops slowly amongst naturally exposed populations, the dynamics of cellular responses in relation to exposure are difficult to study and data about the(More)
BACKGROUND An appropriate balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that mediate innate and adaptive immune responses is required for effective protection against human malaria and to avoid immunopathology. In malaria endemic countries, this immunological balance may be influenced by micronutrient deficiencies. METHODS Peripheral(More)
BACKGROUND Deficiencies in vitamins and mineral elements are important causes of morbidity in developing countries, possibly because they lead to defective immune responses to infection. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of mineral element deficiencies on early innate cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. METHODS Peripheral(More)
Lymphocytopenia has frequently been described in patients with malaria, but studies on its association with disease severity have yielded conflicting results. The neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) has been introduced as a parameter for systemic inflammation in critically ill patients and was found, together with lymphocytopenia, to be a better(More)
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