Matthew Aaron Pettengill

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Production of IL-1beta typically requires two-separate signals. The first signal, from a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, promotes intracellular production of immature cytokine. The second signal, derived from a danger signal such as extracellular ATP, results in assembly of an inflammasome, activation of caspase-1 and secretion of mature cytokine.(More)
Infections with intracellular bacteria such as chlamydiae affect the majority of the world population. Infected tissue inflammation and granuloma formation help contain the short-term expansion of the invading pathogen, leading also to local tissue damage and hypoxia. However, the effects of key aspects of damaged inflamed tissues and hypoxia on continued(More)
Extracellular adenosine, a key regulator of physiology and immune cell function that is found at elevated levels in neonatal blood, is generated by phosphohydrolysis of adenine nucleotides released from cells and catabolized by deamination to inosine. Generation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in blood is driven by cell-associated enzymes, whereas(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. Following infection of epithelial cells, Chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Unconventionally, Chlamydiae use ROS to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial(More)
Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that modulate apoptosis of the host cell. Strikingly, chlamydial infection has been reported both to inhibit and to induce apoptosis. Although the ability to inhibit apoptosis has been corroborated by the identification of cellular targets, confirmation of cell death induction has been complicated by a mixture(More)
Different Chlamydia trachomatis strains are responsible for prevalent bacterial sexually-transmitted disease and represent the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Factors that predispose individuals to disease and mechanisms by which chlamydiae cause inflammation and tissue damage remain unclear. Results from recent studies indicate that(More)
Bacterial infections of the mucosal epithelium are a major cause of human disease. The prolonged presence of microbial pathogens stimulates inflammation of the local tissues, which leads to changes in the molecular composition of the extracellular milieu. A well-characterized molecule that is released to the extracellular milieu by stressed or infected(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus epidermidis causes late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Staphylococcus epidermidis activates host responses in part via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Epidemiologic studies link bacteremia and neonatal brain injury, but direct evidence is lacking. METHODS Wild-type and TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) mice were injected intravenously with(More)
UNLABELLED Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a diversity of severe and debilitating diseases worldwide. Sporadic and ongoing outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) support the need for research on virulence factors associated with these organisms. Previous analyses(More)
Soluble factors in blood plasma have a substantial impact on both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The complement system, antibodies, and anti-microbial proteins and peptides can directly interact with potential pathogens, protecting against systemic infection. Levels of these innate effector proteins are generally lower in neonatal circulation at(More)