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Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted(More)
Action potentials arising from retinal ganglion cells ultimately create visual percepts. In persons blind from retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, viable retinal ganglion cells remain, and the retina can be stimulated electrically to restore partial sight. However, it is unclear what neuronal elements in the retina are activated by(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore limb movements through electrically initiated, coordinated contractions of paralyzed muscles. The peripheral nerve is an attractive site for stimulation using cuff electrodes. Many applications will require the electrode to selectively activate many smaller populations of axons within a common nerve trunk.(More)
OBJECTIVE Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. Our objective is to demonstrate a chronic, clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. APPROACH Multi-contact cuff electrodes were implanted in the median, ulnar,(More)
The number of applications using neural prosthetic interfaces is expanding. Computer models are a valuable tool to evaluate stimulation techniques and electrode designs. Although our understanding of neural anatomy has improved, its impact on the effects of neural stimulation is not well understood. This study evaluated the effects of fascicle perineurial(More)
OBJECTIVE Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. APPROACH Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory(More)
In humans, we tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the femoral nerve trunk can selectively stimulate each muscle the nerve innervates. In a series of intraoperative trials during routine vascular surgeries, an eight-contact FINE was placed around the femoral nerve between the inguinal ligament and the first nerve(More)
OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation has been shown effective in restoring basic lower extremity motor function in individuals with paralysis. We tested the hypothesis that a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) placed around the human tibial or common peroneal nerve above the knee can selectively activate each of the most important muscles these nerves(More)
Evaluation of the Case Western Reserve University spiral nerve cuff electrode on the femoral nerve trunk was performed intraoperatively in four subjects undergoing femoral-popliteal bypass surgery. The threshold, nerve size and selective activation capabilities of the electrode were examined. The activation thresholds for the first muscle to be recruited(More)
The axons of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PGNs) originate on a primary dendrite between 10 and 110 mum from the soma. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the location of the axon origin would impact the relative efficacy of ipsilateral and contralateral synaptic inputs. The morphology of two PGNs was reconstructed, and the transfer(More)