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Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular(More)
In individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis or disease progression. Our work aimed to first establish the dynamics and clinical relevance of CD4:CD8 ratio in a cohort of(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the epidemiologic profile of trichomoniasis in men and its relationship to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Among men presenting for care for symptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Malawi, trichomoniasis is not considered for first-line treatment. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional survey of(More)
Initial studies of 88 transmission pairs in the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project cohort demonstrated that the number of transmitted HLA-B associated polymorphisms in Gag, but not Nef, was negatively correlated to set point viral load (VL) in the newly infected partners. These results suggested that accumulation of CTL escape mutations in Gag might(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a prospective study to evaluate methods of detecting clients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) who were acutely coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS After informed consent was obtained, all clients with acute STDs were offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing by 2 rapid(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually(More)
OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional HIV incidence surveillance, using assays that distinguish 'recent' from 'nonrecent' infections, has been hampered by inadequate performance and characterization of incidence assays. In this study, the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays presents results of the first independent evaluation of five(More)
Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is a plasma membrane-associated proteoglycan that facilitates the growth, motility, and invasion of tumor cells. MCSP expression in melanoma cells enhances integrin function and constitutive activation of Erk1,2. The current studies were performed to determine the mechanism by which MCSP expression promotes(More)
BACKGROUND Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1(More)
African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART(More)