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The focus of this review is the molecular genetics, including consensus NAT1 and NAT2 nomenclature, and cancer epidemiology of the NAT1 and NAT2 acetylation polymorphisms. Two N-acetyltransferase isozymes, NAT1 and NAT2, are polymorphic and catalyze both N-acetylation (usually deactivation) and O-acetylation (usually activation) of aromatic and heterocyclic(More)
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine identified in the human diet and in cigarette smoke that produces prostate tumors in the rat. PhIP is bioactivated by cytochrome P-450 enzymes to N-hydroxylated metabolites that undergo further activation by conjugation enzymes, including the N-acetyltransferases, NAT1 and NAT2.(More)
Three novel human NAT2 alleles (NAT2*5D, NAT2*6D, and NAT2*14G) were identified and characterized in a yeast expression system. The common rapid (NAT2*4) and slow (NAT2*5B) acetylator human NAT2 alleles were also characterized for comparison. The novel recombinant NAT2 allozymes catalyzed both N- and O-acetyltransferase activities at levels comparable with(More)
N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) catalyses the activation and/or deactivation of a variety of aromatic amine drugs and carcinogens. Polymorphisms in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene have been associated with a variety of drug-induced toxicities, as well as cancer in various tissues. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the(More)
N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) catalyses the activation and/or deactivation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. A genetic polymorphism in NAT1 is associated with an increased risk of various cancers and drug toxicities, but epidemiological investigations are severely compromised by a poor understanding of the relationship between NAT1 genotype and(More)
The Nb2 rat lymphoma represents a useful model for investigation of molecular events coupled to PRL-induced proliferation. Moreover, recent evidence has also demonstrated the utility of this system to study mechanisms linked to programmed cell death (apoptosis). Thus, glucocorticosteroids activate apoptosis in lactogen-dependent Nb2 cells, whereas the(More)
N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) are important in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens that induce prostate tumors in the rat. We investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms in NAT1 and NAT2, alone and in combination, with human prostate cancer. Incident prostate cancer cases and controls in a(More)
Genetic polymorphism in N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) is associated with increased risk of various cancers, but epidemiological investigations are compromised by poor understanding of the relationship between NAT1 genotype and phenotype. Human reference NAT1*4 and 12 known human NAT1 allelic variants possessing nucleotide polymorphisms in the NAT1 coding(More)
The lactogen-dependent Nb2 lymphoma line (Nb2-11) represents a useful pre-T cell model for investigation of early molecular events coupled to PRL-stimulated cell cycle progression. Expression of pim-1, a protooncogene that encodes a conserved cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase, is rapidly induced in hematopoietic cells upon mitogen stimulation and is(More)
Lactogen-dependent Nb2 lymphoma cells, widely employed for studying prolactin (PRL) mitogenic mechanisms, are also useful for investigations of apoptosis in T-lineage lymphocytes. Utilizing PRL-dependent Nb2-11 cultures, apoptosis-regulatory genes were evaluated for participation in dexamethasone- (DEX) provoked cell death or its inhibition by PRL.(More)