Matteo S Beretta

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Cumulus oophorus cells have been implicated in the regulation of female gamete development, meiotic maturation, and oocyte-sperm interaction. Nevertheless, the specific role of cumulus cells (CCs) during the final stages of oocyte maturation and fertilization processes still remains unclear. Several studies have been conducted in order to clarify the role(More)
Nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN) is the most prominent representative of the organic nitrates or nitrovasodilators, a class of compounds that have been used clinically since the late nineteenth century for the treatment of coronary artery disease (angina pectoris), congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction. Medline lists more than 15 000(More)
AIMS Nitroglycerin (GTN) acts through release of a nitric oxide (NO)-related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle. Besides enzymatic GTN bioactivation catalysed by aldehyde dehydrogenase, non-enzymatic reaction of GTN with ascorbate also results in the formation of a bioactive product. Using an established guinea pig model of(More)
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) may be involved in the biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), and the inactivation of ALDH2 by GTN may contribute to the phenomenon of nitrate tolerance. We studied the GTN-induced inactivation of ALDH2 by UV/visible absorption spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde and hydrolysis of(More)
Nitroxyl (HNO) may be formed endogenously by uncoupled nitric-oxide (NO) synthases, enzymatic reduction of NO or as product of vascular nitroglycerin bioactivation. The established HNO donor Angeli's salt (trioxodinitrate, AS) causes cGMP-dependent vasodilation through activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). We investigated the mechanisms underlying(More)
Metabolism of nitroglycerin (GTN) to 1,2-glycerol dinitrate (GDN) and nitrite by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is essentially involved in GTN bioactivation resulting in cyclic GMP-mediated vascular relaxation. The link between nitrite formation and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is still unclear. To test the hypothesis that the(More)
Bioactivation of nitroglycerin (GTN) into an activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is essential for the vasorelaxant effect of the drug. Besides several enzymes that catalyze GTN bioactivation, the reaction with cysteine is the sole nonenzymatic mechanism known so far. Here we show that a reaction with ascorbate results in GTN bioactivation. In the(More)
The East Asian variant of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibits significantly reduced dehydrogenase, esterase, and nitroglycerin (GTN) denitrating activities. The small molecule Alda-1 was reported to partly restore low acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity of this variant. In the present study we compared the wild type enzyme (ALDH2*1) with(More)
Phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) attenuates global protein synthesis but enhances translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and is a crucial evolutionarily conserved adaptive pathway during cellular stresses. The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) deactivates this pathway whereas prolonging eIF2α(More)