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BACKGROUND Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, severe, idiosyncratic adverse reaction to antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were originally assumed to be free from the risk of causing NMS, however several cases of NMS induced by SGAs (SGA-NMS) have been reported. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to systematically(More)
Individuals with psychotic disorders are more likely to have vitamin D (VD) deficiency, while evidence suggests VD could have pathophysiological roles. We summarized meta-analytically the available evidence on VD levels in psychotic disorders in comparison with healthy controls and other psychiatric illnesses. We found seven studies, all reporting(More)
Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that is readily available in most countries, and it is often purchased over the Internet. In addition to the acute hazards of intoxication and overdose, users who are dependent on GBL can also experience severe withdrawal reactions, including hallucinations, agitation, confusion, delusions,(More)
OBJECTIVES To provide a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the available evidence on the role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). METHODS Meta-analysis and meta-regression of case-control studies examining the levels of cortisol, ACTH, CRH levels. Systematic review of stress reactivity,(More)
Among patients with schizophrenia, better insight may be associated with depression, but the findings on this issue are mixed. We examined the association between insight and depression in schizophrenia by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was based on 59 correlational studies and showed that global clinical insight was(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling illness associated with significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Although many psychopharmacological agents are currently available for its treatment, many MDD patients suffer from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS A systematic review of the current literature(More)
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