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The identification of the bacterial endotoxin receptors for innate immunity, most notably TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), has sparked great interest in therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. In the present mini-review, several natural and synthetic molecules that modulate the TLR4-mediated LPS (lipopolysaccharide) signalling in animals and(More)
The identification of the bacterial endotoxin receptors for innate immunity, most notably the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), has sparked great interest in therapeutic manipulation of innate immune system. We have recently developed synthetic molecules that have been shown to inhibit TLR4 activation in vitro and in vivo. Here we present the synthesis and the(More)
Early recognition of invading bacteria by the innate immune system has a crucial function in antibacterial defense by triggering inflammatory responses that prevent the spread of infection and suppress bacterial growth. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the innate immunity receptor of bacterial endotoxins, plays a pivotal role in the induction of inflammatory(More)
New glycolipids and a benzylammonium lipid were rationally designed by varying the chemical structure of a D-glucose-derived hit compound active as lipid A antagonist. We report the synthesis of these compounds, their in vitro activity as lipid A antagonists on HEK cells, and the capacity to inhibit LPS-induced septic shock in vivo. The lack of toxicity and(More)
Synthetic molecules derived from natural sugars with a positively charged amino group or ammonium salt and two lipophilic chains have been shown to inhibit TLR4 activation in vitro and in vivo. To characterize the mechanism of action of this class of molecules, we investigated possible interactions with the extracellular components that bind and shuttle(More)
Evidence-based medicine relies on the execution of clinical practice guidelines and protocols. A great deal of effort has been invested in the development of tools which can automate the representation and execution of the recommendations contained within such guidelines, by creating Computer Interpretable Guideline Models (CIGMs). Context-based task(More)
The recent integration of telephony systems with information and communication technology (ICT) enables the development of innovative tools for telemedicine. The dissemination and widespread acceptance of telephone-based care monitoring systems challenge the researcher to deal with the cognitive factors involved in the patient-physician interaction, and the(More)
Heme is a prosthetic group in a large number of essential proteins that have a pivotal role in oxygen transport, storage and electron shuttling. High amounts of free heme are associated with pathological states. Recently, it has been suggested that activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the ways in which the 'danger signal' of free heme is(More)