Matteo Caleo

Learn More
Botulinum neurotoxins (designated BoNT/A-BoNT/G) are bacterial enzymes that block neurotransmitter release by cleaving essential components of the vesicle fusion machinery. BoNT/A, which cleaves SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), is extensively exploited in clinical medicine to treat neuromuscular pathologies, facial wrinkles, and various(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a metalloprotease that blocks synaptic transmission via the cleavage of SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). BoNT/A is successfully used in clinical neurology for the treatment of several neuromuscular pathologies and pain syndromes. Despite its widespread use, relatively little is known on BoNT/A(More)
Neurogenesis continues to occur in the adult mammalian hippocampus and is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors. It is known that exposure to an enriched environment enhances the number of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus. However, the mechanisms by which enriched housing produces these effects are poorly understood. To test a role(More)
Damage to the adult CNS often causes devastating and permanent deficits because of the limited capacity of the brain for anatomical reorganization. The finding that collateral sprouting of uninjured fiber tracts mediates recovery of function prompts the search for experimental strategies that stimulate axonal plasticity after CNS trauma. Here we(More)
The striking differences between the clinical symptoms of tetanus and botulism have been ascribed to the different fate of the parental neurotoxins once internalised in motor neurons. Tetanus toxin (TeNT) is known to undergo transcytosis into inhibitory interneurons and block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord, causing a spastic(More)
BACKGROUND The neurotrophins, which include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4/5 and NT-6, are a family of proteins that play fundamental roles in the differentiation, survival and maintenance of peripheral and central neurons. Much research has focused on the role of neurotrophins as(More)
An important feature of the cerebral cortex is its layered organization, which is modulated in an area-specific manner. We found that the transcription factor AP2gamma regulates laminar fate in a region-specific manner. Deletion of AP2gamma (also known as Tcfap2c) during development resulted in a specific reduction of upper layer neurons in the occipital(More)
Elevated intraocular pressure may lead to retinal ganglion cell injury and consequent visual deficits. Chronic intraocular pressure increase is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading blinding disease, and permanent visual deficits can also occur following acute pressure increments due to trauma, acute glaucoma or refractive surgery. How pressure(More)
A classical example of age-dependent plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity, triggered by monocular deprivation (MD). Sensitivity of cortical circuits to a brief period of MD is maximal in juvenile animals and downregulated in adult age. It remains unclear whether a reduced potential for morphological remodeling underlies this downregulation of(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is a metalloprotease that produces a sustained yet transitory blockade of transmitter release from peripheral nerve terminals. Local delivery of this neurotoxin is successfully employed in clinical practice to reduce muscle hyperactivity such as in spasticity and dystonia, and to relieve pain with long-lasting(More)