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The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of(More)
In longitudinal studies, measurements of the same individuals are taken repeatedly through time. Often, the primary goal is to characterize the change in response over time and the factors that influence change. Factors can affect not only the location but also more generally the shape of the distribution of the response over time. To make inference about(More)
Dependent data arise in many studies. For example, children with the same parents or living in neighboring geographic areas tend to be more alike in many characteristics than individuals chosen at random from the population at large; observations taken repeatedly on the same individual are likely to be more similar than observations from different(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by a succession of relapses and remissions. The aim of our study was to assess whether the predictive value of faecal calprotectin-a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation-for clinical relapse is different in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). (More)
When research interest lies in continuous outcome variables that take on values within a known range (e.g. a visual analog scale for pain within 0 and 100 mm), the traditional statistical methods, such as least-squares regression, mixed-effects models, and even classic nonparametric methods such as the Wilcoxon's test, may prove inadequate. Frequency(More)
We consider a regression model where the error term is assumed to follow a type of asymmetric Laplace distribution. We explore its use in the estimation of conditional quantiles of a continuous outcome variable given a set of covariates in the presence of random censoring. Censoring may depend on covariates. Estimation of the regression coefficients is(More)
Few studies have evaluated the reliability of a self-administered current and historical physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) among middle-aged and elderly women. We evaluated the reliability of a self-administered PAQ designed to assess total (24 h) current and historical physical activity at age 15, 30, and 50 years, which was completed by a subgroup of(More)
BACKGROUND Family history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been suggested to be more useful in risk assessment than thrombophilia testing. OBJECTIVES We investigated established genetic susceptibility variants for association with VTE and evaluated a genetic risk score in isolation and combined with known trigger factors, including family history of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gastroesophageal reflux is common in infants during their first year of life, especially in those born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA). We assessed whether being born preterm or SGA increased the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus (BE) in adulthood. METHODS We performed a population-based case-control study of patients(More)
BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal reflux is a main risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Infants born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) regurgitate more than infants born at term, and some data support the hypothesis of an association with oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus and EAC. This study aimed to assess the association between risk of(More)