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The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of(More)
In longitudinal studies, measurements of the same individuals are taken repeatedly through time. Often, the primary goal is to characterize the change in response over time and the factors that influence change. Factors can affect not only the location but also more generally the shape of the distribution of the response over time. To make inference about(More)
Dependent data arise in many studies. For example, children with the same parents or living in neighboring geographic areas tend to be more alike in many characteristics than individuals chosen at random from the population at large; observations taken repeatedly on the same individual are likely to be more similar than observations from different(More)
When research interest lies in continuous outcome variables that take on values within a known range (e.g. a visual analog scale for pain within 0 and 100 mm), the traditional statistical methods, such as least-squares regression, mixed-effects models, and even classic nonparametric methods such as the Wilcoxon's test, may prove inadequate. Frequency(More)
BACKGROUND The possible benefit of lifetime physical activity (PA) in reducing prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unclear. METHODS A prospective cohort of 45,887 men aged 45-79 years was followed up from January 1998 to December 2007 for prostate cancer incidence (n=2735) and to December 2006 for its subtypes and for fatal (n=190) prostate cancer.(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed attitudes and beliefs about smoke-free laws, compliance, and secondhand smoke exposure before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in Mexico City. METHODS Trends and odds of change in attitudes and beliefs were analyzed across 3 representative surveys of Mexico City inhabitants: before implementation of the(More)
BACKGROUND The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand signal transduction receptor that can initiate and perpetuate inflammation. Its soluble isoform (sRAGE) acts as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands, and is thought to afford protection against inflammation. With the present study, we aimed at determining whether circulating(More)
Two clinical models have been described to predict the probability of pulmonary embolism: the Canadian (or Wells) model, and the Geneva model. A third model has been developed recently at our institution (the Pisa model). We compared the performance of the 3 models in 215 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. The clinical probability(More)
We consider a regression model where the error term is assumed to follow a type of asymmetric Laplace distribution. We explore its use in the estimation of conditional quantiles of a continuous outcome variable given a set of covariates in the presence of random censoring. Censoring may depend on covariates. Estimation of the regression coefficients is(More)
Few studies have evaluated the reliability of a self-administered current and historical physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) among middle-aged and elderly women. We evaluated the reliability of a self-administered PAQ designed to assess total (24 h) current and historical physical activity at age 15, 30, and 50 years, which was completed by a subgroup of(More)