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Cancer cells possess traits reminiscent of those ascribed to normal stem cells. It is unclear, however, whether these phenotypic similarities reflect the activity of common molecular pathways. Here, we analyze the enrichment patterns of gene sets associated with embryonic stem (ES) cell identity in the expression profiles of various human tumor types. We(More)
Extant research suggests that consumers can become emotionally attached to consumption objects , including brands. However, a scale to measure the strength of consumers' emotional attachments to brands has yet to be devised. We develop such a scale in Studies 1 and 2. Study 3 validates the scale's internal consistency and dimensional structure. Study 4(More)
Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit(More)
The Notch protein is one of the most mechanistically direct transmembrane receptors-the intracellular domain contains a transcriptional regulator that is released from the membrane when engagement of the cognate extracellular ligand induces intramembrane proteolysis. We find that chimeric forms of Notch, in which both the extracellular sensor module and the(More)
Human intestinal organoids (HIOs) are a tissue culture model in which small intestine-like tissue is generated from pluripotent stem cells. By carrying out unsupervised hierarchical clustering of RNA-sequencing data, we demonstrate that HIOs most closely resemble human fetal intestine. We observed that genes involved in digestive tract development are(More)
A tradeoff between precision and throughput constrains all biological measurements, including sequencing-based technologies. Here, we develop a mathematical framework that defines this tradeoff between mRNA-sequencing depth and error in the extraction of biological information. We find that transcriptional programs can be reproducibly identified at 1% of(More)
Developing tissues contain motile populations of cells that can self-organize into spatially ordered tissues based on differences in their interfacial surface energies. However, it is unclear how self-organization by this mechanism remains robust when interfacial energies become heterogeneous in either time or space. The ducts and acini of the human mammary(More)
Stem cells occupy variable environments where they must distinguish stochastic fluctuations from developmental cues. Here, we use optogenetics to investigate how the pluripotency network in embryonic stem (ES) cells achieves a robust response to differentiation cues but not to gene expression fluctuations. We engineered ES cells in which we could(More)
Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies--such as constitutive expression or graded(More)