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Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how transcriptional networks reorganize during the transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated cell state. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit(More)
Stem cells occupy variable environments where they must distinguish stochastic fluctuations from developmental cues. Here, we use optogenetics to investigate how the pluripotency network in embryonic stem (ES) cells achieves a robust response to differentiation cues but not to gene expression fluctuations. We engineered ES cells in which we could(More)
Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies--such as constitutive expression or graded(More)
The 2008 financial crisis and its aftermath have proven to be a great challenge for the Federal Reserve. Typically, the FOMC changes the federal funds rate target to achieve its dual mandate of maximum sustainable economic growth and price stability. funds rate target from 5.25 percent to 0.25 percent where it has remained as turmoil engulfed credit(More)
Any organism is embedded in an environment that changes over time. The timescale for and statistics of environmental change, the precision with which the organism can detect its environment, and the costs and benefits of particular protein expression levels all will affect the suitability of different strategies–such as constitutive expression or graded(More)
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