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We investigated the activation of c-fos transcription following UV irradiation, a 'stress' stimulus. In both HeLa TK- and NIH 3T3 cells the Serum Response Element is required for efficient UV-induced c-fos transcription, and in HeLa TK- cells the Ternary Complex Factor (TCF) binding site contributes substantially to activation. Consistent with this, UV(More)
BACKGROUND Acute (antibody-negative) HIV infection is associated with high transmission potential but is rarely recognized. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS We examined the prevalence and predictors of acute HIV infection among 1361 consecutive male outpatients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD; n = 929) and dermatology (n = 432) clinics(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 incidence estimates and correlates of HIV-1 acquisition in African MSM are largely unknown. METHODS Since 2005, HIV-1-uninfected men who reported sex with men and women (MSMW) or sex with men exclusively (MSME) were followed at scheduled visits for collection of behavioural and clinical examination data and plasma for HIV-1 testing.(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of and risk factors for HIV acquisition in a cohort of HIV-uninfected partners from HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda, and to establish its suitability for HIV vaccine trials. METHODS HIV-uninfected adults living in HIV discordant couple relationships were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Interviews, medical(More)
BACKGROUND The role of homosexuality and anal sex practices in the African HIV -1 epidemic is not well described. We aimed to assess the risk factors for prevalent HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) to guide HIV-1 prevention efforts. METHODS Socio-behavioural characteristics, signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases (STD),(More)
The Hedgehog signal transduction pathway is involved in diverse patterning events in many organisms. In Drosophila, Hedgehog signaling regulates transcription of target genes by modifying the activity of the DNA-binding protein Cubitus interruptus (Ci). Hedgehog signaling inhibits proteolytic cleavage of full-length Ci (Ci-155) to Ci-75, a form that(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection. DESIGN A prospective cohort study was embedded within a cross-sectional study of HIV screening in a Lilongwe, Malawi STD clinic. METHODS Blood samples from HIV(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals with acute (preseroconversion) HIV infection (AHI) are important in the spread of HIV. The identification of AHI requires the detection of viral proteins or nucleic acids with techniques that are often unaffordable for routine use. To facilitate the efficient use of these tests, we sought to develop a risk score algorithm for(More)