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We present a method for decomposing wholesale electricity payments into production costs, inframarginal competitive rents, and payments resulting from the exercise of market power. The method also parses actual variable costs into the minimum variable costs necessary to meet demand and increased production costs caused by market power and other market(More)
Since the recognition of prokaryotes as essential components of the oceanic food web, bacterioplankton have been acknowledged as catalysts of most major biogeochemical processes in the sea. Studying heterotrophic bacterioplankton has been challenging, however, as most major clades have never been cultured or have only been grown to low densities in sea(More)
Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other(More)
What are the real security issues for a wireless sensor network (WSN) intended to monitor the structural health of a suspension bridge, a subway tunnel or a water distribution pipe? Could an attack on the sensor network cause the structure to collapse? How easy is it for civil engineers or other domain experts to build a secure WSN using commercially(More)
Many software model checkers only detect counterexamples with deep loops after exploring numerous spurious and increasingly longer counterexamples. We propose a technique that aims at eliminating this weakness by constructing auxiliary paths that represent the effect of a range of loop iterations. Unlike acceleration, which captures the exact effect of(More)
Proving program termination is typically done by finding a well-founded ranking function for the program states. Existing termination provers typically find ranking functions using either linear algebra or templates. As such they are often restricted to finding linear ranking functions over mathematical integers. This class of functions is insufficient for(More)
Loop under-approximation is a technique that enriches C programs with additional branches that represent the effect of a (limited) range of loop iterations. While this technique can speed up the detection of bugs significantly, it introduces redundant execution traces which may complicate the verification of the program. This holds particularly true for(More)
Metagenomics provides access to the uncultured majority of the microbial world. The approaches employed in this field have, however, had limited success in linking functional genes to the taxonomic or phylogenetic origin of the organism they belong to. Here we present an efficient strategy to recover environmental DNA fragments that contain phylogenetic(More)