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Erk1/Erk2 MAP kinases are key regulators of cell behaviour and their activation is generally associated with tyrosine kinase signalling. However, TGF-beta stimulation also activates Erk MAP kinases through an undefined mechanism, albeit to a much lower level than receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation. We report that upon TGF-beta stimulation, the activated(More)
In Drosophila embryos, the loss of sprouty gene function enhances branching of the respiratory system. Three human sprouty homologues (h-Spry1-3) have been cloned recently, but their function is as yet unknown [1]. Here, we show that a murine sprouty gene (mSpry-2), the product of which shares 97% homology with the respective human protein, is expressed in(More)
BACKGROUND Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a popular intervention used to enhance a client's myofascial mobility. Common tools include the foam roll and roller massager. Often these tools are used as part of a comprehensive program and are often recommended to the client to purchase and use at home. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that have(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk is centerpiece in the development of many branched organs, including the lungs. The embryonic lung mesoderm provides instructional information not only for lung architectural development, but also for patterning, commitment and differentiation of its many highly specialized cell types. The mesoderm also serves as a(More)
Recent molecular genetic and embryonic organ culture studies have implicated several novel regulatory processes in the coordination of lung development. Failure of pulmonary initiation results from interruptions of the sonic hedgehog/patched/Gli and Nkx 2.1 signaling pathways. Sonic hedgehog null mutants and Gli2/Gli3 compound null mutants each exhibited(More)
Tumor cell invasion and metastasis requires precise coordination of adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and controlled degradation of its components. lnvasive cells secrete proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases which degrade specific basement membrane molecules. Expression of these enzymes is regulated by multiple signaling(More)
Lung morphogenesis is stereotypic, both for lobation and for the first several generations of airways, implying mechanistic control by a well conserved, genetically hardwired developmental program. This program is not only directed by transcriptional factors and peptide growth factor signaling, but also co-opts and is modulated by physical forces. Peptide(More)
ShcA proteins mediate Erk1/Erk2 activation by integrins and epidermal growth factor (EGF), and are expressed as p46ShcA, p52ShcA, and p66ShcA. Although p52ShcA and p46ShcA mediate Erk1/Erk2 activation, p66ShcA antagonizes Erk activation. p66ShcA is spatially regulated during lung development, leading us to hypothesize that integrin signaling regulates(More)
Lung maturation is regulated by interactions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells, and is delayed by androgens. Fibroblast-Type II cell communications are dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 activation by the ErbB receptor ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, and neuregulin (Nrg). In other(More)
c-fos is the prototypic member of a family of transcription factors that regulate many cellular processes, including proliferation. c-fos heterodimerizes with jun family members to form the AP-1 transcription factor complex which binds specific DNA recognition elements in the promoters of many genes. Following rapid induction in response to serum or growth(More)