This paper argues that expertise can be used as an indicator of consciousness in humans and other animals. The argument is based on the following observations: (1) expertise and skill acquisition require deliberate practice; and (2) the characteristics of deliberate practice such as performance evaluation against a more proficient model, retention of… (More)
Social norms are communally agreed upon, morally significant behavioral standards that are, at least in part, responsible for uniquely human forms of cooperation and social organization. This article summarizes evidence demonstrating that ritual and ritualized behaviors are essential to the transmission and reinforcement of social norms. Ritualized… (More)
(2003, 130–31) envisions a late Palae-olithic shamanistic ritual: Night descends, the meat is eaten and candles are lit. One of the men appears older than the others and wears a necklace of pierced fox teeth around his neck. Throughout the evening he has been lowering his face close to the smoldering herbs and inhaling deeply. He now takes a flat slab of… (More)
This commentary argues that theories of cognitive control risk being incomplete unless they incorporate social/emotional factors. Social factors very likely played a critical role in the evolution of human cognitive control abilities, and emotional states are the primary regulatory mechanisms of cognitive control.