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Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is known to regulate dorsoventral patterning, limb bud formation and axis specification in many organisms, including the chicken. In the chick developing inner ear, BMP4 expression becomes localized in two cell clusters at the anterior and posterior edges of the otic epithelium beginning at stage 16/17 and is expressed in(More)
We investigated the processing of odorant mixtures containing two to seven components by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. The chemicals tested were food-related compounds that are attractive to spiny lobsters, and include adenosine-5'-monophosphate, betaine, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, DL-succinate, taurine, and ammonium. Components were tested at(More)
The present study used a conditioning assay to investigate if the type of learning task that spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) were required to perform influenced the way that they perceived odorant mixtures. Mixtures were composed of 2 food-related compounds (adenosine-5'-monophosphate, betaine, or L-glutamate) at concentrations that produced the same(More)
Early regionalized gene expression patterns within the otocyst appear to correlate with and contribute to development of mature otic structures. In the chick, the transcription factor Pax2 becomes restricted to the dorsal and entire medial side of the otocyst by stage 16/17. The dorsal region of the otocyst forms the endolymphatic duct and sac (ED/ES), and(More)
In order to better understand the interaction between various depth cues, we analyzed two 3D depth cues that are found in both natural spaces and virtual reality environments – shape from shading and motion parallax. We wanted to see how well subjects used these cues as sole information for depth and how they weighted or integrated the two cues. In(More)
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