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Bioengineered heparin is being investigated as a potential substitute for the animal-sourced anticoagulant drug. One step in the current process to prepare bioengineered heparin involves the conversion of N-sulfo heparosan, rich in → 4)GlcNS(1 → 4) GlcA(1 → sequences (where S is sulfo, GlcN is α-D-glucosamine, and GlcA is β-D-glucuronic acid), to a critical(More)
The chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharide (1) and hexasaccharide (2) with a fluorous tag attached at the reducing end is reported. The fluorous tert-butyl dicarbonate ((F)Boc) tag did not interfere with enzymatic recognition for both elongation and specific sulfation, and flash purification was performed by standard fluorous(More)
RATIONALE Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich layer lining the vascular lumen, is associated with the onset of kidney injury in animal models of critical illness. It is unclear if similar pathogenic degradation occurs in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVES To determine if urinary indices of GAG fragmentation are(More)
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