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There is increasing evidence for vesicular release of glutamate from astrocytes. We have previously demonstrated existence of VGLUT1 on astrocytic synaptic-like microvesicles (SMLVs) in several brain regions indicating a role in astroglial glutamate release. As VGLUT3 is prominently expressed in non-neuronal cells, this prompted us to investigate whether(More)
During the last years, the concept of gliotransmission has been established. Glutamate has been shown to be released from astrocytes by different mechanisms, e.g., in an exocytotic manner. The authors have previously shown that astrocytes in the dentate-molecular layers express vesicular glutamate transporters on synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). By(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) carry glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT3 has been reported to be localized in nonglutamatergic neuronal populations in the brain. However, detailed subcellular localization of VGLUT3 has not been shown. In particular, the identity of synaptic vesicles expressing VGLUT3 remains to be revealed. Here we present(More)
Recently, electrophysiological evidence was given for inhibitory postsynaptic responses at dopaminergic striatal synapses. These responses were independent of the vesicular GABA transporter, VGAT, but dependent on the vesicular dopamine transporter VMAT2. The identity and the exact source of the released molecule, as well as the presence of the putative(More)
The role of randomness, environment and genetics in cancer development is debated. We approach the discussion by using the potential outcomes framework for causal inference. By briefly considering the underlying assumptions, we suggest that the antagonising views arise due to estimation of substantially different causal effects. These effects may be hard to(More)
BACKGROUND Gynecomastia has a typical appearance on mammography, and occurs frequently in men. However, imaging is often performed on men with breast lumps to exclude breast cancer, which only comprises 1% of male breast masses. PURPOSE To assess whether ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) are necessary investigations when mammograms(More)
Counter-intuitive associations appear frequently in epidemiology, and these results are often debated. In particular, several scenarios are characterized by a general risk factor that appears protective in particular subpopulations, for example, individuals suffering from a specific disease. However, the associations are not necessarily representing causal(More)