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Availability of automation networks can be increased by providing redundant links and nodes. Although many specifications of industrial Ethernet have been submitted to the International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC), they do not disclose methods to implement network redundancy. The IEC SC65C worked out a standard for implementing redundancy in switched(More)
Aliphatic compounds on plant surfaces, called epicuticular waxes, are the first line of defense against pathogens and pests, contribute to reducing water loss and determine other important phenotypes. Aliphatics can form crystals affecting light refraction, resulting in a color change and allowing identification of mutants in their synthesis or transport.(More)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants fch2 and clo-f2 comprise an allelic group of 14 Chl b-deficient lines. The genetic map position of fch2 corresponds to the physical map position of the gene encoding chlorophyllide a oxygenase. This enzyme converts chlorophyllide a to chlorophyllide b and it is essential for Chl b biosynthesis. The fch2 and clo-f2(More)
Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX at the first committed step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It consists of three subunits: I, D, and H. The I subunit belongs to the AAA protein superfamily (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) that is known to form hexameric ring structures in an ATP-dependant(More)
Ferrochelatase (EC catalyzes the last reaction in the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme was studied in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, for which the ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure is known. Two conserved amino acid residues, S54 and Q63, were changed to alanine by site-directed mutagenesis in order to detect any function they(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been(More)
OBJECTIVES The family members of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of developing RA and are potential candidates for predictive testing. This study explored the perceptions of first-degree relatives of people with RA about being at risk of RA and engaging in predictive testing. METHODS 34 first-degree relatives (siblings and(More)
The erectoides-m anthocyanin-less 1 (ert-m ant1) double mutants are among the very few examples of induced double mutants in barley. From phenotypic observations of mutant plants it is known that the Ert-m gene product regulates plant architecture whereas the Ant1 gene product is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. We used a near-isogenic line of the(More)
We analyze the determinants of performance in small unlisted family firms, and find, in l i n e w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f a m i l y C E O. W e contribute to previous literature by also analyzing the effect of board size in these already small family boards, where the maximum number(More)
We contribute to the previous literature on the use of derivatives by studying separately the determinants for profit seeking versus hedging in a sample of firms from four different Nordic countries. While the hedging motive clearly dominates, more than half of the firms in our sample give some weight for additional income as a motive for the use of(More)
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