Learn More
The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more(More)
In this study, we have revised the rules and parameters for one of the most commonly used empirical pKa predictors, PROPKA, based on better physical description of the desolvation and dielectric response for the protein. We have introduced a new and consistent approach to interpolate the description between the previously distinct classifications into(More)
The new empirical rules for protein pKa predictions implemented in the PROPKA3.0 software package (Olsson et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput.2010, 7, 525-537) have been extended to the prediction of pKa shifts of active site residues and ionizable ligand groups in protein-ligand complexes. We present new algorithms that allow pKa shifts due to inductive (i.e.,(More)
Molecular methods were used to identify blood parasites frequently observed in blood smears of water pythons (Liasis fuscus) captured in our study area in the Northern Territory of Australia. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers amplifying the 18s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nuclear gene resulted in a short PCR product (180 bp) matching this(More)
BACKGROUND Charge states of ionizable residues in proteins determine their pH-dependent properties through their pKa values. Thus, various theoretical methods to determine ionization constants of residues in biological systems have been developed. One of the more widely used approaches for predicting pKa values in proteins is the PROPKA program, which(More)
High levels of testosterone can benefit individual fitness, for example by increasing growth rate or ornament size, which may result in increased reproductive success. However, testosterone induces costs, such as a suppressed immune system, thereby generating trade-offs between growth or mate acquisition, and immunity. In birds and reptiles, females(More)
Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live(More)
The immunocompetence-handicap hypothesis suggests that androgen-dependent male characters constitute honest signals of mate and/or rival quality because of the imposed costs through immune suppression associated with elevated testosterone levels. We demonstrate in a field experiment that male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) exposed to elevated testosterone(More)