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Lateral resolution that exceeds the classical diffraction limit by a factor of two is achieved by using spatially structured illumination in a wide-field fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated with a series of excitation light patterns, which cause normally inaccessible high-resolution information to be encoded into the observed image. The(More)
Structured illumination microscopy is a method that can increase the spatial resolution of wide-field fluorescence microscopy beyond its classical limit by using spatially structured illumination light. Here we describe how this method can be applied in three dimensions to double the axial as well as the lateral resolution, with true optical sectioning. A(More)
Fluorescence light microscopy allows multicolor visualization of cellular components with high specificity, but its utility has until recently been constrained by the intrinsic limit of spatial resolution. We applied three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to circumvent this limit and to study the mammalian nucleus. By simultaneously(More)
Live fluorescence microscopy has the unique capability to probe dynamic processes, linking molecular components and their localization with function. A key goal of microscopy is to increase spatial and temporal resolution while simultaneously permitting identification of multiple specific components. We demonstrate a new microscope platform, OMX, that(More)
Structured-illumination microscopy can double the resolution of the widefield fluorescence microscope but has previously been too slow for dynamic live imaging. Here we demonstrate a high-speed structured-illumination microscope that is capable of 100-nm resolution at frame rates up to 11 Hz for several hundred time points. We demonstrate the microscope by(More)
Sevenfold improved axial resolution has been achieved in three-dimensional widefield fluorescence microscopy, using a novel interferometric technique in which the sample is observed and/or illuminated from both sides simultaneously using two opposing objective lenses. Separate interference effects in the excitation light and the emitted light give access to(More)
We describe a phase retrieval approach for intensity point-spread functions of high-numerical-aperture optical systems such as light microscopes. The method calculates a generalized pupil function defined on a spherical shell, using measured images at several defocus levels. The resultant pupil functionsreproduce measured point-source images significantly(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) can double the lateral and axial resolution of a wide-field fluorescence microscope but has been too slow for live imaging. Here we apply 3D SIM to living samples and record whole cells at up to 5 s per volume for >50 time points with 120-nm lateral and 360-nm axial resolution. We demonstrate(More)
Conventional acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) microscopy data requires sequential z scanning and is often too slow to capture biological events. We report an aberration-corrected multifocus microscopy method capable of producing an instant focal stack of nine 2D images. Appended to an epifluorescence microscope, the multifocus system enables(More)